RAD (1)-1.txt

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
276245
Filename:
RAD (1)-1.txt
Updated:
2014-06-06 07:59:45
Tags:
rad health
Folders:
physics
Description:
Study
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. MATTER
    anything that occupies space and has mass
  2. COMPOUNDS
    a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in a fixed ratio. (example NaCl)
  3. ELEMENT
    substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
  4. ATOM
    the smallest unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination.
  5. IDENTIFY THE THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN ATOM
    • proton
    • neutron
    • electron
    • **the number of protons determines the specific element
  6. LIST THE LOCATION OF THE THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN ATOM
    • - protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus
    • **constituents parts of the nucleus are called nucleons
    • -electrons are located in orbits around the nucleus
    • **these orbits are commonly referred to as electron shell or the electron cloud
    • ***in an electrically neutral atom, there will be an equal number of protons and electrons
  7. LIST THE CHARGE AND RELATIVE MASS FOR THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF THE ATOM
    • - Atomic Mass Unit(amu): the unit establish to define the masses for the parts of the atom because of their relatively small size
    • *a mass exactly equal to 1/12th the mass of one carbon-12 atom
    • -Protons have a relative positive (+1) mass≈1amu
    • -neutrons have no charge mass≈1amu
    • -electrons have a negative charge (-1) mass≈1/1836amu≈0.00055amu
  8. STATE THE FORCE THAT HOLD AN ELECTRON IN ITS ORBIT
    • - Bohr model
    • - ionization potential (energy)
    • - Binding energy (BE) theory of relativity e=mc2
    • - rest mass energy
  9. BOHR MODEL
    • 1- in this model, electrons are hed in orbit by the attractive force between electron and the nucleus
    • 2- orbital electrons- are in distincts shells (energy levels) with the lowest energy shell being closest to the bucleus. (K,L,M,N,O, P and Q)
    • 3- the energies associated with the electron orbits are at fixed value
    • 4- the energy levels for each shell is specific to an element. the closer the shell to the nucleus the lower (more negative) the energy level 
  10. IONIZATION POTENTIAL (ENERGY)
    • 1- the ionization energy of an atom or molecule describes the amount of energy required to remove an electron from the atom or molecule
    • 2- sometimes referred to as the electron binding energy. 
  11. BINDING ENERGY (BE)
    the energy required to break up a nucleus into its component protons ans neutrons

    • albert einstein's theory of relativity
    • e=mc2 
  12. REST MASS ENERGY
    the rest mass energy for the elementary parts of the atom can be determined by using the mass energy equivalence equation
  13. DEFINE SYMBOLS ASSOCIATED WITH ATOMIC NOTATION

    X   
    chemical symbol and defines the element.    (H-Hydrogen, C-carbon)
  14. DEFINE SYMBOLS ASSOCIATED WITH ATOMIC NOTATION

    Z   
    atomic number equals the number of protons in an atom
  15. DEFINE SYMBOLS ASSOCIATED WITH ATOMIC NOTATION

    A   
    atomic mass number equals the total number of protons and neutrons (nucleons) in an atom

    N - Number of neutrons N=A-Z 

  16. DEFINE NUCLIDE
    • an atom having a specific number of protons and neutrons
    • may be stable or radioactive 
  17. DEFINE RADIONUCLIDE
    a radioactive nuclide
  18. DEFINE ISOTOPES
    elements having the same number of protons (Z), but  different number of neutrons (N)
  19. DEFINE RADIATION
    energy flying through space
  20. EXAMPLES OF PARTICULATE AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATIONS
    particulate- alpha and beta particles 

    • electromagnetic- ionizing, non-ionizing, heat light, and sound 
  21. ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
    energy propagated by traveling wave motion resulting from changing electric or magnetic fields. electric currents have an associated magnetic field around them and when this currents are placed in motion, a series of electric and magnetic  waves are sent out.
  22. ENERGY UNITS 
    the energies involved for individual reactions at the atomic level are small compared to everyday electrical and mechanical processes requiring huge number of atoms. the unit of energy used most frequently in atomic physics is the electron volt, or eV
  23. ENERGY UNITS
    an electron volt is defined as the amount of energy gained by an electron in accelerating through a potential difference of 1 volt
  24. ENERGY UNITS
    the eV unit is often used with a multiplier, either keV or MeV; 1 keV is equal to 1000 eV, (1 keV=1x103 eV) and 1 MeV is equal to a million eV, (1MeV=1x106 eV) 
  25. ENERGY UNITS
    if it were possible to instantly turn on a light bulb, 1 MeV of energy would operate 100 watt light bulb for the duration of only 1.6x10 to the negative 15 seconds. most nuclear interactions involve tens of keV up to several MeV of energy.
  26. DEFINE CONTAMINATION
    finely divided particles of radioactive material in an undesired location
  27. DEFINE IONIZING RADIATION
    any electromagnetic or particulate radiation (energy) capable of producing ions directly or indirectly as it passes through matter.
  28. TYPES OF IONIZING RADIATION
    • 1- particulate radiation
    • *has mass
    • **is charged or uncharged
    • ***examples: alpha, beta and neutron
    • 2- electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
    • *has no mass
    • **has no charge
    • ***examples: gamma and x-rays 
  29. DESCRIBE EXCITATION
    • the process of adding energy to the nucleus or electron cloud, causing it to transition from a ground state to an excited state
  30. DESCRIBE IONIZATION
    the process of adding and removing atomic or molecular electrons to produce one or more ions
  31. DESCRIBE DIRECT IONIZATION RADIATION
    • -charged particles radiations that produce ionization
    • -interact directly with orbital electrons thorough coulombic (electrostatic) forces
    • -examples: electrons, protons, alpha-particles, beta-particles, heavy charged particles  
  32. DESCRIBE INDIRECT IONIZING RADIATION
    • -electromagnetic photons (y-rays and x-rays) and neutron radiation that produce fast moving charged particles through collisions with matter
    • -these charged particles go on to create additional ionizations through coulombic (electrostatic) interactions 
  33. LIST THE CARACHTERISTICS OF ALPHA RADIATION
    • -emitted from the nucleus
    • -essentially a Helium (He+) nucleus
    • -large mass (4amu)
    • -+2 charge (strong electrostatic field interactions)
    • -monoenergetic (energy range>>3.5 to 10 MeV
    • -travel 1/20 the speed of light
    • -least penetrating of all ionizing radiation
    • -range in air several cm
    • -range tissue measured in microns (micrometers)
    • -high internal hazard 
  34. LIST THE CHARACTERISTICS OF BETA RADIATION
    • -emitted from the nucleus
    • -essentially an energetic electron (high KE)
    • -0.00055amu
    • -mostly internal hazard
    • -can be either negatively or positively charged
    • *Beta- (ᵝ-) negatron or electron
    • **Beta- (ᵝ+) positron
    • -emitted in a spectrum of energies
    • -more penetrating than alpha radiation 
  35. LISIT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF NEUTRON RADIATION (1n)
    • emitted from the nucleus of an atom as a result of nuclear fission
    • spectrum of energies
    • all neutrons are born fast
    • mass≈1amu  
  36. LIST THE MASS AND AND CHARGE OF PHOTON
    • a packet of energy
    • no rest mass
    • no charge
  37. STATE THE ORIGIN OF GAMMA RAYS
    gamma rays are emitted from the nucleus
  38. STATE THE ORIGIN OF X-RAYS
    X-rays are emitted from the electron cloud
  39. DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTIC X-RAYS
    • produce when an electron from a higer (outer orbital) shell drops down to fill a vacancy in a lower (orbital) shell
    • the difference in binding energies between the two shells is emitt   ed in the form of a photon
    • because the difference in binding energies is unique for different atoms, these photons are characteristic to the elements in which they originate
  40. DESCRIBE BREMSSTRAHLUNG RADIATION
    • german for "breaking radiation"
    • occurs when high speed charged particles undergo radial acceleration (negative acceleration or deceleration) due to change in the direction of travel
    • as particles near an atom, they may change direction due to the electrostatic (coloumb) forces 

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview