RAD-2.txt

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276246
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RAD-2.txt
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2014-06-06 08:01:49
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rad health
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  1. EXPOSURE
    receipt of ionizing radiation, either by proximity of external sources of ionizing or through through radioactive material taken into the body
  2. ROENTGEN (R)
    the amount of x-ray or gamma radiation ≤ 3MeV which will produce in air 2.58 x 10-4 coulumbs of charge per kilogram of air
  3. ERG
    • the amount of energy required to lift a mass of 1/980 g through 1cm
    • 1erg= 1 x 10-7J =6.27 x 105 MeV
  4. ABSORBED DOSE
    • the energy imported by ionizing radiation per unit mass of irratdiated material
    • the unit of absorbed dose is the gray or the rad (Gy/rad) 
  5. RAD
    • the unit of absorbed dose (D) which is equal to the absorption of 100 ergs/g
    • 100ergs/g = 1 rad =0.01J/Kg = 0.01Gy
    • in air: 1R = 87.7 ergs/g = 0.877rad
    • in tissue : 1R = 95.3ergs/g =0 .953rad
  6. GRAY
    • (Gy)
    • one gray = 100rad
    • 1Gy = 1x104erg/g = 1J/Kg
  7. LINEAR ENERGY TRANSFER
    rate of energy absorbed by a medium along the track of an ionizing particle
  8. DEFINE QUALITY FACTOR (Q)
    • the factor which is multiplied by the absorbed dose () to obtain a quantity which equates to a common scale, the dose equivalent (HT) of any type of ionizing radiation to which an individual is exposed
    • (HT=DQ)
  9. LIST THE QUALITY FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT RADIATION TYPES
    • photones (gamma rays and x-rays): 1
    • electrons:1
    • beta+ and beta-: 1
    • thermal neutrons: 2
    • fast neutrons: 10
    • protons: 10
    • alpha particles: 20
  10. REM (NNPP)
    that amount of radiation which will cause damage to the tissue of our bodies equivalent to the damage that would be cause by absorbing 100 ergs of gamma radiation per gram of body tissue
  11. REM (P-5055)
    • the unit of dose equivalent (HT) which is equal to the absorbed dose multiplied by the quality factor
    • absorbed dose x quality factor (Q)  
  12. SIEVERT(Sv)
    one sievert = 100 rem
  13. MAN-REM
    the total radiation dose received by all of the individuals in a specific group ove a specified period of time or during a specified work effort
  14. DOSE EQUIVALENT (HT)
    • the product of the absorbed dose (D) and the quality factor (Q)
    • HT=DQ
  15. EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT (HE)
    • the sum of the products of the wighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tissue that are irradiated and the dose equivalent to these organs or tissues
    • (HE=∑WT x HT)
  16. DEEP DOSE EQUIVALENT (Hd)
    external exposure, to the whole body, at a tissue depth of 1cm (1000mg/cm2)  
  17. SHALLOW DOSE EQUIVALENT
    external exposure, to the skin or extremity at a tissue depth of 0.007cm (7mg/cm2) (averaged over an area of 10cm2)
  18. EYE DOSE EQUIVALENT
    external exposure, to the lens of the eye, at a tissue depth of 0.3cm (300mg/cm2)
  19. COMITTED DOSE EQUIVALENT (HT,50)
    the dose equivalent to an organ or tissue that will be received from an intake of radioactive material by an individual during the 50 year period following the intake
  20. COMITTED EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT (HE,50)
    the sum of the products of the wighting factors applicable to each of the body organs or tiissue that are irradiated and the comitted dose equivalent to these organs or tissues
  21. TOTAL EFFECTIVE DOSE EQUIVALENT (TEDE)
    • the sum of the deep dose equivalent (external doe) and the comitted effective dose equivalent (internal dose)
    • the sum of external and internal dose
    • exposure limit in the Navy
    • 3rem/quarter not to exceed
    • 5rem/yr 
  22. ANNUAL LIMIT INTAKE (ALI)
    • the smaller amount of radioactive material taken into the body of an adult worker by inhalation or ingestion in a year (40hrs/wk for 50wks) that would result in: a comitted effective dose equivalent of 5 rem or a comitted dose equivalent of 50rem to any individual organ or tissue
    • work year is 40hrs/wk for 50wks 
  23. DERIVED AIR CONCENTRATION (DAC)
    • the concentration of given radionuclide in air which, if breathed for a working year under conditions of light work results in an intake of one ALI
    • work yr is 40hrs/wk for 50wks of light work
    • light work is an inhalation rate of 1.2cubic meters of air per hour
  24. ALARA
    as low as reasonably achievable
  25. NON-STOCHASTIC (DETERMINISTIC) EFFECT
    non-statistic
    • heslth effects for which the severity varies with the dose and which a threshold normally exists
    • severity is a function of these with a threshold
  26. EPILATION
    hair loss in which there is a sufficient reduction in the replicative capacity of the germinal cells or the matrix of the hair follicles
  27. ERYTHEMA
    reddening of the skin
  28. ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME (ARS)
    • biologic changes and symptoms including death, that occur within weeks after a high intensity total body irradiation
    • earliest Sx are nausea,vomit and diarrhea
  29. STOCHASTIC EFFECT
    statistics, probability
    • health effects that occur randomly and for which the probability of the affect occurring is assumed to be a linear function of dose without threshold
    • probability of occurrance is a function of dose without a threshold hederitary effects and cancer incidence
  30. CANCER
    a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and agressiveley migrate or are transported to other organs in the host
  31. STOMATIC EFFECTS
    effects of radiation limited to the exposed individual
  32. HEDERITARY EFFECTS
    radiation effects that can be transferred rom parent to offspring
  33. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS
    radiation effects that may be observed in children who were exposed during the fetal and embryonic stages of development

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