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2014-06-19 06:31:15

Show Answers:

  1. what is the patient prep for a IVU/IVP
    • usually the same as a BE
    • light evening meal before procedure
    • bowel cleansing laxative
    • npo after midnight (minimum of 8 hours)
  2. With a pt undergoing a n IVU study but has a foley catheter in place what must you do before injecting contrast media
    the tech must clamp the catheter first then inject contrast after study is done unclamp so contrast flows into the bag
  3. what is the purpose of uteric compression
    enhances the filling of contrast in the kidneys and pelvicalyceal system
  4. where are the uteric compression pads placed when in use
    over the pelvic brim just medial to ASIS
  5. what are the contraindications to using a uteric compression
    • possible uteric stones
    • abdominal mass
    • abdominal aortic aneurysm
    • recent abdominal surgery
    • severe abdominal pain
    • acute abdominal trauma
  6. what three urinary studies involve characterization of the pt through the urethra
    • retrograde urogram/pyelogram
    • cystogram
    • voiding cystourethrogram
  7. what is the radiographic procedure that involves the injection of contrast media through a vein
  8. what two studies involve the function of the kidneys
    IVP/IVU and voiding cystourethrogram
  9. what two procedures visualize how the bladder fills and the shape of it
    retrograde urogram/pyelogram and cystogram
  10. when injecting a pt the only contrast needed to use is ____
  11. Barium is only used ______
    enterically (through mouth or rectum)
  12. what is and IVU and what are the two purposes
    radiographic examination of the urinary system

    • visualizes the collecting portion of the urinary system
    • assess the functional ability of the kidneys (timed procedure)
  13. what is the basic routine and special of an IVU
    • scout radiograph
    • injection (note time at beginning of injection)
    • 1min nephrogram or nephrotomography
    • 5min ap supine
    • 15min ap supine
    • 20min poster obliques (LPO RPO)
    • PA
    • Post void

    • Special:
    • Uteric Compression
  14. In the ap scout film we must see what of the kidneys
    what is the breathing and where do we center
    • must see upper poles of kidneys and bottom of bladder
    • suspend respiration on expiration
    • iliac crests
  15. what size cassette do we use for a nephrogram or nephrotomogram
    where is the CR
    • 11x14 crosswise
    • CR midway btw xiphoid tip and iliac crest
  16. what technical factors is appropriate for the studies of the kidney
    once we inject contrast what must we annotate on the film
    • 70-75kv
    • how much time has passed i.e. 5 min 15min 20min
  17. why are nephrograms taken early in the study
    to demonstrate the functional portion of the kidney (whole kidney)
  18. when taking a nephrotomogram we must warn the patient about what
    we must warn them that the tube wil lbe moving back and forth so they dont get scared
  19. in the RPO and LPO position of the IVU what is the degree of obliquity and where is the CR for the RPO
    what is the breathing
    The RPO position best visualizes what (2 things)
    • 30 deg oblique
    • iliac crests
    • suspend on expiration

    • left kidney is placed in profile and is parallel to the IR
    • Right ureter is also visualized b.c it is projected away from the spine free of superimposition
  20. where is the CR for the LPO
    what is the breathing
    The LPO position best visualizes what (2 things)
    • iliac crests
    • suspend on expiration
    • visualizes the right kidney in profile (b/c of 30 deg oblique)
    • also visualizes the left ureter projected away from the spine
  21. what best position visualizes the distal and mid ureters filled with contrast and visualizes the upper poles of kidneys and bottom of bladder
  22. what position is best to rule out a nephroptosis
    erect abdomen centered at crests
  23. what structures are best shown in a Post void ap in an IVU
    what position is used for a post void
    where is the cr for a postvoid
    • entire urinary system with only resiudal contrast media visible
    • demonstrates enlarge prostate or prolapsed bladder
    • erect or pa
    • at crests centered one inch lower to include a prolapsed bladder
  24. which one of the procedures is done in the OR with the patient in the lithotomy position (legs spread open)
    Retrograde Urogram/Pyelogram
  25. during a retrograde urogram in the OR when should make an exposure
    Is this a functional study
    how much kv do we need
    • expose after anesthesist suspends respiration if pt is under general anesthesia
    • no
    • 70-75
  26. what is a cystogram
    radiographic study of the bladder after instillation of an iodinated contrast medium via a urethral cathe
  27. what cassette do you need for a cystogram
    what is the breathing
    where is the cr for an ap
    what is the tube angle
    • 11x14 crosswise
    • on expiration
    • 2in above pubic symphysis
    • 10-15deg caudad angle
  28. what is the purpose of the caudal tube angle on an ap cystogram
    it pushes the pubic symphysis inferior to the bladder
  29. what is the obliquity of the LPO and RPO cystogram
    the steeper the oblique shows what
    where is the CR
    • 45-60deg
    • the posterior portion of the bladder
    • 2'' above symphysis pubis and 2'' medial to upside ASIS
  30. where is the CR for a lateral cystogram
    • 2in superior and posterior to the pubis symphysis
    • 11x14 lengthwise
  31. for a VCUG male what is the position and obliquity used
    what is the size cassette
    where is the catheter and directions for pt
    where is the CR for a VCUG male
    • RPo 30 deg oblique
    • 10x12 lengthwise
    • catheter must be removed and pt should be instructed to void
    • @ pubis symphysis
  32. what is best shown in a VCUG male
    male urethra containing contrast medium
  33. what positioned is used or VCUG female
    size cassette?
    where is the CR
    what is pt instruction during exposure and catheter must be where
    • ap with legs slightly extended and separated
    • 10x12 length wise
    • @ pubis symphysis
    • exposure when pt is voiding and catheter must be remove first
  34. what structure is shown in a female VCUG
    female urethra filled with contrast
  35. what is flank pain
    kidney stones
  36. what are the clinical indications/pathologies for an IVU
    • abdominal mass
    • renal or urethral calculi
    • kidney trauma
    • hematuria
    • hypertension
    • renal failure
    • UTI
  37. where must you center the CR when using a uteric compression
    what size cassette do we use
    • midway btw xiphoid tip and crests
    • 11x14 crosswise
  38. what is the routine for a cystogram and special
    what is the routine for a vcug male and female
    • ap
    • rpo
    • lat (optional)

    • male rpo
    • female ap
  39. which of the the exams require a fluoring of the doctor
    which exam requires informed consent
    • cystogram
    • vcug
    • ¬†IVP