Exam 2 6:6:14.txt

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Exam 2 6:6:14.txt
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A and P exam 2 Summer 14
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  1. What are the functions of the Integument?
    • Protection
    • Defense
    • Sensation
    • Secretion
    • Thermoregulation
    • Blood reservoir
    • Excretion
  2. What is Keratin?
    • Fibrous protein that gives skin, hair, hooves, wool, fur, nails, horns
    • More pressure creates more Keratin
  3. What are Melanocytes?
    • Cells that make Melanin
    • Primarily in stratum melanin
  4. What are Merkel cells?
    • Cells in the stratum basale used for light touch
    • In hands and feet
  5. That are Langerhans' cells?
    • Dendritic cells
    • Macrophages
  6. What are the layers of the epidermis?
    • Stratum basale
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Granulosum
    • (Stratum Lucidium )
    • Stratum Corneum
  7. What are the different forms of skin cancer?
    • Basal cell carcinoma
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Melanoma
  8. What is the two most common cause of cancer?
    • UVB-Sun
    • UVA-Age
  9. What is Squamous cell Carcinoma?
    • Cancer in the keratinocytes of the intermediate or transitional layers of the epidermis.
    • Acceleration of apoptosis is an important response of these cells to sun exposure. If apoptosis fails ten these cells can become abnormal and produce cancer
    • If caught early cure is good
    • Usually in exposed area
  10. What is Basal cell carcinoma?
    • An Abnormal growth of the basal cells. These cells are normally proteted from UV exposure by the melanin secreted by nearby melanocytes. This form of cancer can usually be successfully treated surgically if caught in time. least malignant form
    • Found in sun exposed areas
  11. What is Melanoma?
    • Cancer of the melanocytes which is the most dangerous because it often metastasizes to other tissues and organs.
    • Found in non-exposed areas
    • Systemic reaction to UV
  12. What is the ABCD rule?
    • Asymmetry
    • Border irregularity
    • Color
    • Diameter
    • Used to identify Melanoma
  13. What is Carotene?
    A protein that causes the color orange.
  14. What color skin makes V-D faster?
    Lighter skin
  15. What does a deficiency in V-D cause?
    Rickets/osteomalacia
  16. How long does light and dark skin need to be in the sun for V-D?
    • Light - 30min
    • Dark 3hrs
  17. What is the Papillary layer of the skin?
    • Areolar connective tissue
    • Very thin
  18. What is Dermal papillae?
    • Upper edge of the papillary
    • Has capillary loops, nerve endings and Meissners corpuscles
  19. What is are the dermal ridges?
    Form epidermal ridges which are our finger prints.
  20. What is the Reticular layer?
    • Dens, irregular connective tissue
    • Cleavage lines
    • fixture lines.
  21. What are the appendages of the skin?
    • Hair follicles and hair
    • Glands
    • Nerve endings
  22. What are Ecccrin glands?
    • Merocrine secretion
    • Secrete sweat mostly
    • Cell does not expel
  23. What are apocrine glands?
    • A type of Merocrine secretion
    • Nasty sweat, part of the cells goes
    • Sebaceous gland
  24. What are Ceruminous glands?
    The glands that produce ear wax
  25. What is the anatomy of a hair follicle?
    • Cortex
    • Sheath
    • Medulla
    • Matrix; growth
    • hair papilla
    • Melanocyte
    • Cuticle
  26. What is a hair cuticle?
    The outermost, heavily keratinized single layer of cells that overlap each other.
  27. What attributes to red head color?
    Trichosiderin
  28. What is the cause of gray hair?
    Loss of melanin and air bubbles in shaft
  29. What is the anatomy of the nail?
    • Free edge of nail
    • Body of nail
    • Lunule
    • Cuticle (Eponychium)
    • Proximal and lateral nail folds
    • root of nail
    • nail matrix
    • Hyponychium (under the free edge of the nail)
    • Nail bone
  30. What are the different types of cartilage?
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  31. What is Hyaline cartilage?
    • The most common type
    • Composed of chondrocytes and collagen
    • Articular, costal respiratory, nasal epiphyseal plates and embryonic tissue
  32. What is elastic cartilage?
    • Like hyaline but also has elastin fibers
    • Better resists bending
    • Only in external ear and epiglottis
  33. What is Fibrocartilage?
    • Compressible and resists tension
    • Has thick collagen fibers
    • Knee menisci, vertebral disks, pubic symphsis
  34. What are the functions of the skeletal system?
    • Support
    • Protection
    • movement mineral storage
    • hematopoiesis (blood production)
  35. Bone gross anatomy?
    • Persiodium
    • Sharpy's fibers
    • Medullary cavity
    • Red marrow
    • Endosteum
    • Diaphysis
    • Neutrient foramen
    • Metaphysis
    • Epiphyseal lin/plate
    • Epiphysis
  36. What is the Periosteum?
    • Membrane on the outside of the bone
    • Does not cover the area of the joint
  37. What are Sharpey's fibers?
    Collagen fibers that secure the periosteum to bone
  38. What is Red Marrow?
    Hematopoietic tissue
  39. What is yellow marrow?
    Fat containing
  40. What is the Endosteum?
    Like periosteum but lines the medullary cavity and trabecular
  41. What is the diaphysis?
    The shaft of the bone.
  42. What is the Nutrient foramen?
    Hole throughout the periosteum into the diaphysis
  43. What is the Metaphysis?
    Vague area b/n the diaphysis and the epiphysis
  44. What is the epiphyseal plate?
    • Groth plate
    • Can be scene on the end of the bone
  45. What is the Epiphysis?
    The distal and proximal end of the bone.
  46. What is an osteoblast?
    • Bone form in cell
    • Secretes the osteoid
  47. What is an osteocyte?
    • Mature bone cell
    • Perform maintenance
  48. What is an osteoclast?
    Bone resorbing cells derived from monocytes
  49. What is an Osteoprogenitor cell?
    • Derived from mesenchyme
    • Differentiate into osteoblasts
  50. What is an Osteon?
    • Osteon is the structural unit of bone
    • It is the concentric hallow tube along the axis of the bone.
  51. What is a Volkman's canal?
    • A canal that runs perpendicular to the osteons.
    • Has blood and nerves
  52. What is the Haversian system?
    The same as an osteon
  53. What is a Canaliculi?
    The fine lines perpendicular to the canal and lacunae
  54. What is the lacunae?
    The holes that contain the osteocyte
  55. What is the lamella?
    The part of the bone that cycles the central canal
  56. What is intramembranous edification?
    • A model of fibrous connective tissue
    • Cranium (accept base occipital) and clavicle.
    • Clavicle is the first bone to ossify (day 39)
  57. What is Endochondral ossification?
    • A model of Hyaline cartilage
    • Everywhere else but not superior half of occipital
  58. What is Achondroplasia?
    • A disease that affects the endochondral ossification
    • Midgets
  59. What is the anatomy of the fetal skull?
    • Anterior fontanelle
    • Metopic suture
    • Frontal bone
    • Perietal
    • Perietal eminence
    • Posterior fontanelle
    • Squamous occipital
  60. When does the fetal skull ossify?
    Normally by age 1
  61. What are Wormian bones?
    • Also called ossicles bones.
    • Are irregular bones formed in the sutures
  62. The fontanelles on the lateral side of the fetal head?
    • Anterolateral fontanel
    • Posterolateral fontanel
  63. What is wolf's law?
    • Bone remodels in response to stressors
    • This is what produces all the little bumps and ridges under muscle attachments.
    • Bone will be thickes in areas of high stress
  64. What are the stages of bone remodeling?
    • 1. Hematoma formation
    • 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus formation
    • 3. Bony callus formation
    • 4. Bone remodeling

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