Psy 312 Chapter 2

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nisab44
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276293
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Psy 312 Chapter 2
Updated:
2014-06-07 00:06:49
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psychology
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Ed Psych exam 1
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  1. Differences between students that play a role in devising lesson plans and assessing them
    psycho-social development; cognitive development; age; mental abilities; thinking style; achievement; ethnic background; SES/social class
  2. Basic principles of Erikson's Theory
    epigenetic principle and psychosocial crisis
  3. epigenetic principle
    idea that development progresses through a series of interrelated stages and that each stage has a critical period of development
  4. psychosocial crisis
    turning points; conflict between opposing psychological qualities
  5. Stages of Psychosocial Development (Erikson; 1st 5)
    1. Trust vs. Mistrust; 2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt; 3. Initiative vs. Guilt; 4. Industry vs. Inferiority; 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion; 6. Intimacy vs Isolation; 7. Generativity vs Stagnation; 8. Ego integrity vs. Despair
  6. Adolescent Identity Statuses
    Put chart on 4x6
  7. Criticisms of Erikson
    1. Based on personal and subjective interpretations; 2. Is better at describing psychosocial development than explaining how and why it occurs; 3. Active exploration of beliefs, relationships, careers not universal practice; 4. Reflects the personality development of males more than females
  8. Basic principles of Piaget's Theory
    Scheme, organization, adaptation, equilibration, and disequilibration
  9. scheme
    organized pattern of behavior or thought
  10. organization
    tendency to combine cognitive processes into coherent, logically interrelated systems
  11. adaptation
    process of creating a good fit between one's conception of reality and one's experiences
  12. adaptation is accomplished by
    assimilation and accommodation
  13. assimilation
    interpreting an experience by fitting into an existing scheme; calling a cat "dog"
  14. accommodation
    interpreting an experience by changing an existing scheme to incorporate the experience; calling a cat "cat" after being corrected
  15. equilibration
    tendency to organize schemes to allow better understanding of experiences
  16. disequilibration
    perception of a discrepancy between existing scheme and new information that one is driven to resolve
  17. Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development
    1. Sensorimotor; 2. Preoperational; 3. Concrete Operational; 4. Formal Operational
  18. The Role of Social interaction and instruction in Cog Development
    Social interaction with peers leads to less egocentrism and development of new schemes; instruction may hasten development of new schemes that have started to form
  19. Criticisms of Piaget's Theory
    1. Underestimating Children's Capabilities; 2. Overestimating Adolescents' Capabilities; 3. Vague Explanations for Cognitive Growth; 4. Cultural Differences
  20. Vygotsky: How culture affects cog dev
    1. How one thinks and solves problems is influenced by the current and historical forces of one's culture; 2. A culture's psychological tools aid and change one's thought processes
  21. Vygotsky: How social interaction affects cog dev
    Basically, hanging around more advanced intellectuals can have that intellect rub off on you; cognitive development aided more by interacting with more intellectually advanced peers, older children, and adults who can transmit more advanced psychological tools
  22. Vygotsky: How instruction affects cog dev
    formal instruction replaces spontaneous concepts (empirical learning) with scientific concepts (theoretical learning)
  23. Zone of Proximal Development
    ZPD is the difference between what a child can do on his own and what can be accomplished with some assistance
  24. scaffolding
    used to support learning during its early phases; as students become more capable of working independently, supports are withdrawn
  25. Comparison of Piaget and Vygotsky
    Put chart on 4x6
  26. Technology applied to Piaget
    Microworlds; Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL); Collaboration with other students via the internet
  27. Technology Applied to Vygotsky
    Cognitive apprenticeship with technology (telementoring); interaction with peers as well as experts on the Web (multi-user virtual environments, for example)
  28. Piaget's analysis of the moral judgement of the child
    moral realism (morality of constraint) and moral relativism (morality of cooperation)
  29. moral realism (morality of constraint)
    rules are sacred, consequences determine all guilt; typical of six-year-olds
  30. moral relativism (morality of cooperation)
    rules are flexible, intent is important in determining guilt; typical of twelve-year-olds
  31. Kohlberg's use of moral dilemmas
    Expanded on Piaget's work by having people of different ages respond to moral dilemmas; On the basis of their responses identified six stages of moral development (stages on 4x6)
  32. Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory
    1. Not applicable to all cultures; 2. Moral dilemmas are too removed from everyday social interactions; 3. Theory does not adequately address micormoral issues; 4. Too much emphasis on moral reasoning and not enough on moral behavior
  33. Carol Gilligan's caring orientation to moral development and education
    believes that females are elss concerned about separation and independence and more concerned about remaining loyal through expressions of caring, understanding, and sharing experiences (resolve ID vs role confusion and intimacy vs isolation at same time)
  34. Nel Noddings caring orientation to moral development
    believes that caring relationships help produce a moral attitude in students; educators should strive to create genuine caring relationships in schools
  35. Does moral thinking lead to moral behavior
    Hartshorne and May studies: providing students with moral knowledge and belief systems does not necessarily lead to moral behavior; recent research on character education programs supports these findings

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