RAD 2.5 and 2.6.txt

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Anonymous
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276318
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RAD 2.5 and 2.6.txt
Updated:
2014-06-07 11:26:20
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rad
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  1. STATE THE FOUR METHODS OF CONTROLLING INTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURE
    • avoiding inhalation
    • avoiding ingestion
    • avoiding absortion
    • wound decontamination
  2. STATE THE THREE BASIC METHODS FOR CONTROLLING EXTERNAL RADIATION EXPOSURE
    • time
    • distance
    • shielding
  3. STATE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TIME, DISTANCE AND SHIELDING IS UITILIZED IN A MEDICAL SETTING
    time- have a thorough understanding of the tasks to be performed and appropriate equipment to complete them in as safe and timely manner
  4. STATE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TIME, DISTANCE AND SHIELDING IS UITILIZED IN A MEDICAL SETTING
    distance- stand as far as possible during x-ray procedure without compromising the diagnostic quality of the exam
  5. STATE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TIME, DISTANCE AND SHIELDING IS UITILIZED IN A MEDICAL SETTING
    shielding- utilize shielding appropriate to the photon energy, number, intensity, and geometry of the radiation sources, and exposure rate goals at various locations.
  6. STATE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TIME, DISTANCE AND SHIELDING IS UTILIZED IN A NUCLEAR SETTING   
    • time- plan the job
    • pre-job or pre-shift briefings
    • perform mock up training
    • perform as much work as possible aoutside of the radiation area
    • properly stage area for work
  7. STATE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TIME, DISTANCE AND SHIELDING IS UTILIZED IN A NUCLEAR SETTING 
    • distance- move the component to be worked
    • use remote equipment
    • work at arm's lenght from the source
    • adjust work position
  8. STATE AN EXAMPLE OF HOW TIME, DISTANCE AND SHIELDING IS UTILIZED IN A NUCLEAR SETTING 
    • shielding- install temporary lead shielding
    • work behind structural components
  9. DEFINE HALF-VALUE LAYER
    the thickness of a given material required to reduce the intensity of a beam of gamma radiation to one-half of its original value
  10. DEFINE TENTH-VALUE LAYER
    the thickness of a given material required to reduce the intensity of a gamma radiation to one-tenth of its original value
  11. LIST THE POTENTIAL RESULTS OF CELLULAR DAMAGE FROM RADIATION EXPOSURE
    • the cell may die
    • the cell may divide but its daugthers may be incapable of life and so may die
    • the cell may divide and produce abnormal daugthers cells as a result of the alteration of its genetical material
    • the cell may repair the DNA damage before it divides, in which case, the daugther cell will be abnormal
  12. COMPARE DIRECT AND INDIRECT DAMAGE TO THE CELL
    • direct damage- any form of radiation is absorbed in biological material, there is a possibility that will interact with the DNA of the cell
    • indirect damage- the radiation may interact with other atoms in the cell particularly water to produce bradiclas which in turn will afect the DNA 
  13. EXPRESS THE LAW OF BERGONIE AND TRIBONDEAU
    • the law of bergonie and tribondeau states that cells tend to be radiosensitive if they:
    • 1have a high dividision rate
    • 2have a long divide future
    • 3are of an unspecialized type
  14. LIST THE MODIFIERS OF RADIATION SENSITIVITY FACTORS FOR THE WHOLE BODY
    • total dose
    • type of cell
    • type of radiation
    • age of individiual
    • stage of cell division
    • part of the body exposed
    • general state of health
    • tissue volume exposed
    • time interval over which dose recieved
  15. LIST THE EARLY EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
    • nausea, vomiting
    • malaise and fatigue
    • increased temperature
    • blood changes
  16. LIST ONE OF THE MOST RADIOSENSITIVE CELLS IN THE BODY
    lymphocyte
  17. LIST THE THRESHOLD DOSE FOR THE ONSET OF ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME
    whole body doses of 100 rad
  18. LIST THE FOUR STAGES OF ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME
    • prodromal
    • latent
    • manifest of illness
    • recovery or death
  19. LIST THE THREE CHARACTERISTIC SYNDROMES OF ARS
    • hematopoietic syndrome
    • gastrointestinal syndrome
    • cerebrovascular syndrome
  20. LIST THE EXPOSURE RANGES FOR EACH CHRACTERISTIC SYNDROME OF ARS
    • hematopoietic syndrome- 100rad-1000rad
    • gastrointestinal syndrome- 1000rad-5000rad
    • cerebrovacular syndrome- >5000rad
  21. STATE THE LD50/60 FOR HUMANS
    • is the value of the dose delivered to a group such that 50% of them will survive for 60 days without medical treatment
    • ~410rads+/-150rad

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