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How can fever cause dehydration?
excessive fluid loss due to diaphoresis
Other than dehydration, fever causes what two things?
- increased metabolism
- increased demand for O2
Irritability and restlessness are early signs of _________ _________.
A s/s of pneumonia that is not reliable in older adults.
abrupt onset of fever with shaking & chills
S/S of pneumonia in addition to fever.
- productive cough with pain
- rapid, bounding pulse
- increased WBC
- hypoxemia (ABG)
- decreased SPO2
S/S of pneumonia in older adults.
- increased RR & HR
Wht are two things to be aware of with fever?
- it causes diaphoresis which causes dehydration
- it causes in increase in metabolism which increases O2 demand
How much fluid is lost daily by lungs through evaporation?
COPD patients are in chronic _______ with ______ compensating.
- respiratory acidosis (↑O2, ↓CO2)
- metabolic alkalosis (↑HCO3)
What is a pink puffer?
- Barrel chest due to use of accessory muscles to breathe with emphysema pts
- Adequate intake of O2, just work harder
What is a blue bloater?
- insufficient O2 & cyanosis due to chronic bronchitis
- right sided heart failure
What to teach COPD pts about diet.
- small, frequent meals
- increase calories & protein
- if still smoking, increase vit C
- drink fluids BETWEEN meals, not with them (to avoid abdominal distention)
What labs to monitor in COPD pts.
- Mg++ & Ca++ (muscle contraction)
- Mg++ & PO4- (bone mineralization; osteoporosis)
Why is it important to offer mechanically soft diets for COPD pts?
eating consumes energy needed for breathing
O2 must bubble through a water solution to be humidified if given at what rate?
- GREATER than 4L/min
- (or, must be delivered directly to trachea)
Four common symtoms of pneumonia that a nurse might note on a physical exam.
- fever with chills
- productive cough
- bronchial breath sounds
Four nursing interventions for pneumonia.
- encourage deep breathing
- increase fluids to 3L/day
- use humidity to loosen secretions
- suction airway to stimulate coughing
How is hypoxia prevented during suctioning?
deliver 100% O2 (hyperinflating) before and after each ET suction
What physical findings are likely with an emphysema pt?
- barrel chest
- dry or productive cough
- decreased breath sounds
- crackles in lung fields