All activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore, and maintain health.
What is the purpose of research?
To describe, explain, and change the world.
What are the goals of health systems?
1. To improve the health of a population.
2. To respond to peoples expectations.
3. To provide financial protection against the costs of health (use resources wisely).
What is the criteria for assessing health systems?
1. Access to equity.
3. Wise use of resources.
What are health systems meant to do?
1. Govern health policy.
2. Be a number of entities working together to achieve a purpose.
What do health systems include?
- Hospitals, community health centers, pharmacies, etc.
- Health professionals & health care workers.
- Health policy and health regulations.
- Health funding.
Three key health organisations are:
1. PUBLIC: e.g. DHB
2. PRIVATE (Profitable): e.g. PHARMAC
3. PRIVATE (Non-Profitable): e.g Plunket
Rights vs. Needs Based Approach
RIGHTS: 'Should be an equal distribution.'
NEEDS: 'If you need it you get it, if you don't need it, you don't get it.'
What are barriers to access to health care?
Obstacles within a health care system that inhibit vulnerable patient populations within a society from receiving required health care, or that cause them to receive worse health care than more advantaged patient populations.
What is epidemiology?
The study of distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations. And the application of this study to help control health problems and dis-ease.
What is 'Hart's Inverse Care Law' (HICL)?
'The availability of good quality health care tends to vary inversely with the need for it within the population being served.'
Those with the greatest need get the worst, and those with the least need get the best.
Results in inequality.
What is the NZ Deprivation Level?
The measure of the level of socio-economic deprivation of an area, which is collected through census data gathering.
Interventions operate at the micro (proximal) level, including treatment systems, and dis-ease management.
Case by case.
Change for each individual.
Interventions operate at the macro (distal) level, such as government policies and international trade agreements.
An abnormal process in which aspects of the social, physical, emotional, or intellectial condition and function of a person are diminished or impaired, compared wth that persons previous condition.
Cross Sectional Study
A study that looks at the relationaship between dis-eases and other variables of interest as they exist in a defined populaion at a single poin in time.
The # of new cases of an event in a particular time period.
A state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family, or group belongs.
Compare NZ & USA Health Spending
NZ: Better health outcomes with less money spent per person.
USA: Worse health outcomes with greater money spent per person.
Suggests that USA has worse and less effective spending on health than NZ.
What are the Maori and Pacific Island views on health?