ABSITE - Ch1: Cell Biology

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khata
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276351
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ABSITE - Ch1: Cell Biology
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2014-06-07 23:37:40
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ABSITE review chapter one
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  1. Cell membrane characteristics
    • Lipid bilayer
    • cholesterol increases membrane fluidity
    • Negative inside compared to outside
    • Na/K pump - 3 Na out/2 K in
  2. Desmosomes/hemidesmosomes (definition)
    adhesion molecules (cell-cell and cell-extracellular, respectively), which anchor cells
  3. Tight junctions (definition)
    Cell-cell occluding junctions, form occluding barrier (i.e. epithelial cells)
  4. Gap junctions
    Allow communication between cells
  5. G proteins (definition)
    Intramembrane proteins that tranduce signal from receptor to response enzyme
  6. Ligand-triggered kinase
    Receptor and response enzyme are a single transmembrane protein
  7. ABO blood-type antigens
    Glycolipids on cell membrane
  8. HLA-type antigens
    Glycoproteins on cell membrane
  9. Osmotic equilibrium
    Water will move from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration and approach osmotic equilibrium
  10. Cell cycle: G1
    • Protein synthesis
    • Most variable, determines cell cycle length
  11. Cell cycle: S
    Chromosomal duplication
  12. Cell cycle: M
    Mitosis
  13. Mitosis phases
    • Prophase: centromere attachement, spindle formation, nucleus disappears
    • Metaphase: Chromosome alignment
    • Anaphase: Chromosomes pulled apart
    • Telophase: Separate nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes
  14. Nucleus
    Double membrane, outer membrane continuous with rER
  15. Nucleolus
    • Inside nucleus
    • No membrane
    • Ribosomes made here
  16. Transcription
    DNA strand used by RNA polymerase for synthesis of mRNA strand
  17. Transcription factors (2)
    • Bind DNA to help the transcription of genes
    • Steroid hormone: binds receptor in cytoplasm then enters nucleus and acts as transcroption factor
    • Thyroid hormone: Binds receptor in nucleus then acts as a transcription factor
  18. Initiation factors
    Bind RNA polymerase and initiate transcription
  19. DNA polymerase chain reaction
    Uses oligonucleotides to amplify specific DNA sequences
  20. Purines
    • Guanine
    • Adenine
  21. Pyrimidines
    • Cytosine
    • Thymidine
    • Uracil
    • (GC3, AT2)
  22. Translation
    mRNA uses as a template by ribosomes for synthesis of protein
  23. Ribosomes
    Have small and large subunits that read mRNA, then bind appropriate tRNAs that have aminoacids and eventually make proteins
  24. Glycolysis
    1 glucose molecule generates 2ATP and 2 pyruvate
  25. Mitochondria
    • 2 membranes
    • Krebs cycle on inner matrix
    • NADHFADH2 created
  26. Krebs cycle
    2 pyruvate molecules create NADH and FADH2
  27. Gluconeogenesis
    • Mechanism by which lactic acid (Cori cycle) and amino acids are converted to glucose
    • Used in times of starvation or stress
    • Fat and lipids not avalable as AceCoA cannot be converted back to pyruvate
  28. Cori cycle
    Mechanism by which the liver coverts muscle lactate into new glucose
  29. Rough ER
    Synthesizes proteins that are exported
  30. Smooth ER
    Lipid/steroid synthesis, detoxifies drugs
  31. Golgi
    Modifies proteins with carbohydrates
  32. Lysosomes
    Have digestive enzymes that degrade engulfed particles and worn-out organelles
  33. Phagosome
    Engulfs large particles, fuses with lysosomes
  34. Endosomes
    Engulfed small particles, fuses with lysosomes

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