For PR exam

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For PR exam
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2014-06-08 10:12:14
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  1. What is public relations?
    Managing relationships. Effective communication. Planning and implementing communication.
  2. Who was the first modern pr practioner and what year?
    Ivy Ledbutter, 1906
  3. Who was the first to use the term public relations?
    Edward Bernays
  4. First public relations in Aus and what did they deal in?
    George Fitzpatrick.
  5. What was the first association and when?
    PRIA, 1949
  6. Why isn't PR advertising?
    • With an advert, you have full control.
    • With a media release, you don't have control after it's sent.
  7. Difference between publics and stakeholders?
    Publics are people with shared interests and concerns, stakeholders have a direct relationship with org.
  8. What is public opinion focused on?
    On the goal, as opposed to the method to get to it.
  9. Characteristics of public opinion?
    • Determined by self-interest.
    • Often doesn't stick around for long.
    • Highly sensitive to events.
  10. How much of the general public are opinion leaders?
    10-12%
  11. Which theory - Cynical view of pr. Tied to corporate interest?
    Critical theory
  12. What is critical theory?
    Cynical view of pr. Tied to corporate interest.
  13. Which theory is the following:

    where there is discussion between parties, discussing the objective or end goal. Factual evidence is a reasoned argument, ethical judgement is crucial to the effective communication and establishing solid relationships.
    Rhetorical perspective
  14. What is rhetorical theory?
    • discussion between parties, discussing the objective or end goal.
    • Factual evidence is a reasoned argument
    • ethical judgement is crucial to the effective communication and establishing solid relationships.
  15. What is systems theory and when was it established?
    • understands an organisation as part of a social system.
    • communication between them.
    • adapts to changes in the system.
    • A pr looks to boundary span expand, transforming an org from closed to open.
    • They're a conduit between org and public.
  16. Which theory is:

    understands an organisation as part of a social system. communication between them. adapts to changes in the system.A pr looks to boundary span expand, transforming an org from closed to open.They're a conduit between org and public.
    Systems theory
  17. What is boundary spanning, does it make an org open and what theory is it part of?
    It's part of systems theory and it is where a pr sits on the boundary between an org and it's publics, like a conduit. Open system.
  18. What is agenda setting theory and what is key here?
    The longer a topic appears in the media, the more prominently it'll be in the publics mind. Defining the salient publics in key here.
  19. What is the following theory and what is key here? -

    The longer a topic appears in the media, the more prominently it'll be in the publics mind.
    • Agenda setting theory
    • Identifying key publics is key.
  20. What is the following theory? -
    Increase awareness
    calls public to action
    trigger participation and change
    Behavioural Change model
  21. What does Behavioural Change model do?
    • Increase awareness
    • calls public to action
    • trigger participation and change
  22. Which theory deals primarily with relationships?
    Relationship management and relational theory
  23. What is communication theory?
    • About messages.
    • each party has to interpret and shape it before it goes out.
    • After which, it should be carefully monitored.
  24. What is the following theory -
    About messages.
    each party has to interpret and shape it before it goes out.
    After which, it should be carefully monitored.
    Communication theory
  25. What is excellence theory?
    • Helps organisation interact with social and political elements.
    • Participative rather than authoratative org culture
    • symmetrical communication, employees and management horizontal
    • organic, fluid functions, able to be changed
    • high job satisfaction
  26. What is the following theory -

    Helps organisation interact with social and political elements.
    Participative rather than authoratative org culture
    symmetrical communication, employees and management horizontal
    organic, fluid functions, able to be changed
    high job satisfaction
    Excellence theory
  27. What is excellence theory a result of and what year?
    Study by Grunig, 1985
  28. What else did Grunig & Hunt come up with to categorise PR practice?
    • The four models:
    • Press agentry
    • Public Information
    • 2-way Assymetrical
    • 2-way Symmetrical
  29. As per the four models, what is press agentry?
    • publicity
    • one way communication
    • stretching truth
  30. Which of the four models is -
    publicity
    one way communication
    stretching truth?
    Press agentry
  31. How is public information described in the four models?
    • one way
    • truthful
    • used in public-sector
    • for example, road safety
  32. What category is the following in the four models:
    one way
    truthful
    used in public-sector
    for example, road safety
    Public information
  33. According to the four models, what is 2 way asymmetrical?
    • mostly scientific information used
    • prone to be manipulative
  34. Which of the four models is mostly scientific information and is prone to be manipulative?
    2 way asymmetrical
  35. Which of the four models is the best way and promotes mutual understanding?
    2 way symmetrical
  36. What is 2 way symmetrical according to the four models?
    • it's the best way
    • and promotes mutual understanding
  37. What are the two PR roles?
    • Technician - on the floor, hands on, doing tactics
    • Problem Solver - senior manager role
  38. What are the three schools of thoughts in ethics?
    • Virtue
    • Deantology
    • Consequentialism
  39. What is Virtue in ethics?
    "what kind of person should i be?"
  40. What is Deantology in ethics?
    "What are my duties?"
  41. What is consequetialism in ethics?
    "How ought the world to be?"
  42. Which school of thought asks "what kind of person should i be?"
    Virtue
  43. What school of thought asks "What are my duties?"
    Deantology
  44. What school of thought asks "How ought the world to be?"
    Consequentalism
  45. Ralph potter said that ethical decisions are based on:
    • - Situation
    • - Values
    • - Principals
    • - Loyalties
  46. What is issues management?
    • Identification of potential or emerging issues.
    • Best for crisis management.
    • Planning means a better response.
  47. According to Heath, what are the key functions of issue management?
    • anticipation and analysis
    • development of the orgs position
    • identify key publics
    • identify what you want publics to do
  48. What is the five step process of issue management?
    • 1. Identify issues
    • 2. analyse each issue
    • 3. Identify strategic actions available
    • 4. Implement an action plan
    • 5. Evaluate success
  49. What defines a crisis and needs management?
    • Prevents  org from functioning properly
    • Threatens its future.
  50. What are the five types of crisis and examples?
    • 1. External economic - extortion, bribery
    • 2. Ext information - copyright infringement, loss of info
    • 3. Mega damage - incidents, safety, disasters
    • 4. Breaks - product recalls, defects, plant defects, poor security
    • 5. Psycho - terrorism, sexual harassment, tampering
  51. What are the two types of pr research?
    Qualitative and quantative
  52. What is the process in qualitative research?
    • -  Identify opinions
    • - Get sense of how things are
    • - Understand stakeholder - issues
    • - Test stakeholder responses
  53. What is the process in quantitative research?
    • - how many people act/think certain way on a subject
    • - attitudes
    • - awareness levels
    • - behaviour
    • - level and type of media coverage
  54. What is environmental scanning?
    • Keeping up to date.
    • With news and new communication methods.
  55. What is corporate identity?
    'corporate personality' the profound level of a corporation. soul, persona, spirit, culture.
  56. What is a tangible manifestation of corporate personality?
    Corporate identity.
  57. What are the three structures of a corporations?
    Monolithic, endorsed and branded.
  58. What is a monolithic corporation and example?
    Single business identity, like Apple.
  59. What is an an endorsed corporation and example?
    multi business identity (Kraft, but Vegemite, chessy bite are brands themselves and are most prominent)
  60. What is a branded corporation and example?
    a brand-based identity (colgate/palmolive - they own a bunch of shit you have no idea they own, you have to read the fine print)
  61. What are the steps to program planning?
    • - Research
    • - Analysis
    • - Goals
    • - Objectives
    • - Publics/audiences
    • - Strategies
    • - Tactics (budget as well)
    • - Monitoring
    • - Evaluation

    RAGOPS T(i)ME
  62. What is key to setting objectives?
    • SMART
    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Achievable
    • Results-oriented
    • Timeframe
  63. What has challenged pr?
    The internet - changing it from one to many to many to many
  64. What are the impacts of new media?
    • Anybody can be a producer
    • No gatekeepers
    • Can cross geographical boundaries
    • Greater org transparency
  65. Two schools of thought toward new media are:
    • 1. Technology is an extension of an existing tactic, doesn't see the many-many thing.
    • 2. shift in balance of power. it's not controlled by gatekeepers.

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