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What is public relations?
Managing relationships. Effective communication. Planning and implementing communication.
Who was the first modern pr practioner and what year?
Ivy Ledbutter, 1906
Who was the first to use the term public relations?
First public relations in Aus and what did they deal in?
What was the first association and when?
Why isn't PR advertising?
- With an advert, you have full control.
- With a media release, you don't have control after it's sent.
Difference between publics and stakeholders?
Publics are people with shared interests and concerns, stakeholders have a direct relationship with org.
What is public opinion focused on?
On the goal, as opposed to the method to get to it.
Characteristics of public opinion?
- Determined by self-interest.
- Often doesn't stick around for long.
- Highly sensitive to events.
How much of the general public are opinion leaders?
Which theory - Cynical view of pr. Tied to corporate interest?
What is critical theory?
Cynical view of pr. Tied to corporate interest.
Which theory is the following:
where there is discussion between parties, discussing the objective or end goal. Factual evidence is a reasoned argument, ethical judgement is crucial to the effective communication and establishing solid relationships.
What is rhetorical theory?
- discussion between parties, discussing the objective or end goal.
- Factual evidence is a reasoned argument
- ethical judgement is crucial to the effective communication and establishing solid relationships.
What is systems theory and when was it established?
- understands an organisation as part of a social system.
- communication between them.
- adapts to changes in the system.
- A pr looks to boundary span expand, transforming an org from closed to open.
- They're a conduit between org and public.
Which theory is:
understands an organisation as part of a social system. communication between them. adapts to changes in the system.A pr looks to boundary span expand, transforming an org from closed to open.They're a conduit between org and public.
What is boundary spanning, does it make an org open and what theory is it part of?
It's part of systems theory and it is where a pr sits on the boundary between an org and it's publics, like a conduit. Open system.
What is agenda setting theory and what is key here?
The longer a topic appears in the media, the more prominently it'll be in the publics mind. Defining the salient publics in key here.
What is the following theory and what is key here? -
The longer a topic appears in the media, the more prominently it'll be in the publics mind.
- Agenda setting theory
- Identifying key publics is key.
What is the following theory? -
calls public to action
trigger participation and change
Behavioural Change model
What does Behavioural Change model do?
- Increase awareness
- calls public to action
- trigger participation and change
Which theory deals primarily with relationships?
Relationship management and relational theory
What is communication theory?
- About messages.
- each party has to interpret and shape it before it goes out.
- After which, it should be carefully monitored.
What is the following theory -
each party has to interpret and shape it before it goes out.
After which, it should be carefully monitored.
What is excellence theory?
- Helps organisation interact with social and political elements.
- Participative rather than authoratative org culture
- symmetrical communication, employees and management horizontal
- organic, fluid functions, able to be changed
- high job satisfaction
What is the following theory -
Helps organisation interact with social and political elements.
Participative rather than authoratative org culture
symmetrical communication, employees and management horizontal
organic, fluid functions, able to be changed
high job satisfaction
What is excellence theory a result of and what year?
Study by Grunig, 1985
What else did Grunig & Hunt come up with to categorise PR practice?
- The four models:
- Press agentry
- Public Information
- 2-way Assymetrical
- 2-way Symmetrical
As per the four models, what is press agentry?
- one way communication
- stretching truth
Which of the four models is -
one way communication
How is public information described in the four models?
- one way
- used in public-sector
- for example, road safety
What category is the following in the four models:
used in public-sector
for example, road safety
According to the four models, what is 2 way asymmetrical?
- mostly scientific information used
- prone to be manipulative
Which of the four models is mostly scientific information and is prone to be manipulative?
2 way asymmetrical
Which of the four models is the best way and promotes mutual understanding?
2 way symmetrical
What is 2 way symmetrical according to the four models?
- it's the best way
- and promotes mutual understanding
What are the two PR roles?
- Technician - on the floor, hands on, doing tactics
- Problem Solver - senior manager role
What are the three schools of thoughts in ethics?
What is Virtue in ethics?
"what kind of person should i be?"
What is Deantology in ethics?
"What are my duties?"
What is consequetialism in ethics?
"How ought the world to be?"
Which school of thought asks "what kind of person should i be?"
What school of thought asks "What are my duties?"
What school of thought asks "How ought the world to be?"
Ralph potter said that ethical decisions are based on:
- - Situation
- - Values
- - Principals
- - Loyalties
What is issues management?
- Identification of potential or emerging issues.
- Best for crisis management.
- Planning means a better response.
According to Heath, what are the key functions of issue management?
- anticipation and analysis
- development of the orgs position
- identify key publics
- identify what you want publics to do
What is the five step process of issue management?
- 1. Identify issues
- 2. analyse each issue
- 3. Identify strategic actions available
- 4. Implement an action plan
- 5. Evaluate success
What defines a crisis and needs management?
- Prevents org from functioning properly
- Threatens its future.
What are the five types of crisis and examples?
- 1. External economic - extortion, bribery
- 2. Ext information - copyright infringement, loss of info
- 3. Mega damage - incidents, safety, disasters
- 4. Breaks - product recalls, defects, plant defects, poor security
- 5. Psycho - terrorism, sexual harassment, tampering
What are the two types of pr research?
Qualitative and quantative
What is the process in qualitative research?
- - Identify opinions
- - Get sense of how things are
- - Understand stakeholder - issues
- - Test stakeholder responses
What is the process in quantitative research?
- - how many people act/think certain way on a subject
- - attitudes
- - awareness levels
- - behaviour
- - level and type of media coverage
What is environmental scanning?
- Keeping up to date.
- With news and new communication methods.
What is corporate identity?
'corporate personality' the profound level of a corporation. soul, persona, spirit, culture.
What is a tangible manifestation of corporate personality?
What are the three structures of a corporations?
Monolithic, endorsed and branded.
What is a monolithic corporation and example?
Single business identity, like Apple.
What is an an endorsed corporation and example?
multi business identity (Kraft, but Vegemite, chessy bite are brands themselves and are most prominent)
What is a branded corporation and example?
a brand-based identity (colgate/palmolive - they own a bunch of shit you have no idea they own, you have to read the fine print)
What are the steps to program planning?
- - Research
- - Analysis
- - Goals
- - Objectives
- - Publics/audiences
- - Strategies
- - Tactics (budget as well)
- - Monitoring
- - Evaluation
What is key to setting objectives?
What has challenged pr?
The internet - changing it from one to many to many to many
What are the impacts of new media?
- Anybody can be a producer
- No gatekeepers
- Can cross geographical boundaries
- Greater org transparency
Two schools of thought toward new media are:
- 1. Technology is an extension of an existing tactic, doesn't see the many-many thing.
- 2. shift in balance of power. it's not controlled by gatekeepers.