Med Surg 23. Cardiac and Venous Disorders

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  1. The four valves in the heart
    • mitral
    • tricuspid
    • pulmonic 
    • aortic
  2. cardiac insufficiency/regurgitation
    • heart valve does not close completely
    • blood backs up and increases pressure in the affected chamber
  3. mitral valve prolapse
    • one or both flaps bulge into the left atrium during systole
    • blood can leak into the left atrium (mitral regurgitation)
    • increases pressure on papillary muscles resulting in ischemia
    • most common valvular heart disease
    • can be caused by infection, ischemic heart disease, heredity and cardiomyopathy
    • Signs and symptoms - murmur, atypical chest pain, palpitation, dizziness or syncope, fatigue, dyspnea or anxiety
    • Therapeutic measures healthy lifestyle, betablockers, aspirin or anticoagulants, surgery in severe cases
  4. mitral stenosis
    • mitral valve flaps thicken and chordae tendineae shorten causing narrowing of the mitral valve opening
    • blood flow from the left atrium to left ventricle obstructed
    • left atrium forced to enlarge to hold extra blood volume
    • pressure rises in right ventricle and pulmonary circulation
    • right ventricle dilates and eventually fails
    • Etiology rheumatic fever, congenital defects, tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and calcium deposits
    • signs and symptoms click or low pitched murmur, exertional dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis (bloody sputum), respiratory infections. symptoms of decreased cardiac output
    • therapeutic measure no treatment if no symptoms present, anticoagulants, valvuloplasty to dilate the valve
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Med Surg 23. Cardiac and Venous Disorders
2014-06-08 14:31:50

nursing care of cardio pts
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