Science Chapter 5

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Science Chapter 5
2009-12-16 17:34:24

Chapter 5
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  1. Reactant
    A substance that undergoes a chemical change
  2. Product
    A substance that is the result of a chemical change
  3. Chemical Energy
    The energy stored within atoms and molecules that can be released when a substance reacts
  4. Exothermic Reaction
    • a reaction that transfers energy from the reactants to the surrounding as heat
    • temperature rises
  5. Endothermic Reaction
    • A reaction in which energy is transferred to the reactants as heat from the surroundings
    • temperature decreases
  6. Synthesis Reaction
    A reaction of at least two substances that forms a new, more complex compound
  7. Decomposition
    A reaction in which one compound breaks into at least two products
  8. Electrolysis
    the decomposition of a compound by an electric current
  9. Combustion Reaction
    A reaction in which a compound and oxygen burn
  10. Single-displacement reaction
    a reaction in which atoms of one element take the place of atoms of another element in a compound
  11. Double-displacement reaction
    A reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound is formed from the apparent exchange of ions between two compounds
  12. Reduction/oxidation (redox) reaction
    A reaction that occurs when electrons are transferred from one reactant to another
  13. Radicals
    the fragments of molecules that have at least one electron available for bonding
  14. Chemical Equation
    An equation that uses chemical formulas and symbols to show the reactants and products in a chemical reaction
  15. Mole Ratio
    the smallest relative number of moles of the substances involved in a reaction
  16. Catalyst
    a substance that changes the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed
  17. Enzyme
    a protein that speeds up a specific biochemical reaction
  18. Substrate
    the specific substance affected by an enzyme
  19. Equilibrium
    the state in which a chemical reaction and its reverse occur at the same time and at the same rate