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A technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. It emphasizes brain activity. It can be applied as a part of the problem-solving process first popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book called Applied Imagination.
A form of thinking in which ideas come together to form a solution. Convergent thinking is a term coined by Joy Paul Guilford.
A form of thinking in which different aspects of an idea are explored. Brainstorming is one technique of divergent thinking.
A method of examining cause and effect using a fishbone diagram.
The process of making decisions that result in change by using small adjustments rather than big jumps.
A variation of the reflective thinking sequence. Its most important contribution is the way in which a group works through the criteria phase, differentiating between the musts and wants of a solution.
A decision-making strategy by Etzioni that combines examining a problem comprehensively (the rational approach) and part by part (the incremental approach).
Reflective Thinking Process
A pattern for small group problem solving that includes six components. (1) What is the problem? (2) What are its causes and limits? (3) What are the criteria for an acceptable solution? (4) What are the available solutions? (5) What is the best solution? (6) How can it be implemented?
Bargaining in which communication is incomplete or impossible (Murnighan).
Scamper System of Brainstorming
- S = substitute
- C = combine
- A = adapt
- M = modify
- P = put to another use
- E = eliminate
- R = reverse
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