Chapter 6

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Chapter 6
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2010-07-22 07:47:05
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Small Group Communication
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  1. Brainstorming
    A technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. It emphasizes brain activity. It can be applied as a part of the problem-solving process first popularized by Alex Faickney Osborn in a book called Applied Imagination.
  2. Convergent Thinking
    A form of thinking in which ideas come together to form a solution. Convergent thinking is a term coined by Joy Paul Guilford.
  3. Divergent Thinking
    A form of thinking in which different aspects of an idea are explored. Brainstorming is one technique of divergent thinking.
  4. Fishbone Technique
    A method of examining cause and effect using a fishbone diagram.
  5. Incrementalism
    The process of making decisions that result in change by using small adjustments rather than big jumps.
  6. Kepner-Tregoe Approach
    A variation of the reflective thinking sequence. Its most important contribution is the way in which a group works through the criteria phase, differentiating between the musts and wants of a solution.
  7. Mixed Scanning
    A decision-making strategy by Etzioni that combines examining a problem comprehensively (the rational approach) and part by part (the incremental approach).
  8. Reflective Thinking Process
    A pattern for small group problem solving that includes six components. (1) What is the problem? (2) What are its causes and limits? (3) What are the criteria for an acceptable solution? (4) What are the available solutions? (5) What is the best solution? (6) How can it be implemented?
  9. Tacit Bargaining
    Bargaining in which communication is incomplete or impossible (Murnighan).
  10. Scamper System of Brainstorming
    • S = substitute
    • C = combine
    • A = adapt
    • M = modify
    • P = put to another use
    • E = eliminate
    • R = reverse

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