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Life is based on _______ _______.
the study of carbon-based molecules
Carbon molecules= _______ ________
What are the four classes of carbon molecules?
- nucleic acids
How many valence electrons does Carbon have?
What type of bond do Carbon molecules form?
How many elements can Carbon bond with?
up to 4
Most biological molecules are _________.
What are the largest macromolecules?
large molecule made of many similar or identical subunits (monomers)
small molecules combined with other similar or identical molecules to make a polymer
What are the two types of carbohydrates?
glucose- extremely important monomer
- chitin- forms the exoskeleton of arthropods
- contain C, O, H (More H than carbs)
- insoluble in water (non polar)
- fats, oils, cholesterol
- function in body as insulation, energy storage, outer lining of cells
- contain primilarly C, O, H
- breads and sugars
- simple or complex
- primary component of animal cell membranes
- dual nature
- polar head= hydrophilic
- non polar tails= hydrophobic
- amino acids make up proteins
- have an amino grp (NH2) and carboxyl grp (COOH) attached to central carbon
- different side chains make the amino acids different from each other
two or more amino acids bonded together
chain of many amino acids bonded together
How many amino acids are there?
20 different amino acids
What are the different functions of proteins?
- enzymes- enable most chemical reactions in living organisms
- hormones- chemical messengers
- transport- move other molecules (hemoglobin)
- protective- healing, defensive (antibodies)
- structural- mechanical support (keratin-hair)
- contractile- movement (muscle contraction)
- monomers of nucleic acids
- composed of a phosphate group (sugar and nitrogenous base)
- adensoine tripohshate
- a nucleotide
- energy providing molecule of cells
What are the four nitrogenous bases foudn in DNA?
- Adenine (A)
- Cytosine (C)
- Guanine (G)
- Thymine (T)