Biology Chap 3

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Author:
rwischnewski
ID:
276413
Filename:
Biology Chap 3
Updated:
2014-06-08 18:45:36
Tags:
Biology
Folders:
Biology
Description:
Biological molecules
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  1. Life is based on _______ _______.
    Carbon Molecules
  2. Organic chemistry?
    the study of carbon-based molecules
  3. Carbon molecules= _______ ________
    organic molecules
  4. What are the four classes of carbon molecules?
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
    • nucleic acids
  5. How many valence electrons does Carbon have?
    4
  6. What type of bond do Carbon molecules form?
    covalnet bonds
  7. How many elements can Carbon bond with?
    up to 4
  8. Most biological molecules are _________.
    macromolecules
  9. What are the largest macromolecules?
    polymers
  10. polymer?
    large molecule made of many similar or identical subunits (monomers)
  11. monomer?
    small molecules combined with other similar or identical molecules to make a polymer
  12. What are the two types of carbohydrates?
    • simple 
    • complex
  13. simple carbohydrates?
    glucose- extremely important monomer
  14. complex carbohydrates?
    • starch 
    • chitin- forms the exoskeleton of arthropods
  15. lipids?
    • contain C, O, H (More H than carbs)
    • insoluble in water (non polar)
    • fats, oils, cholesterol
    • function in body as insulation, energy storage, outer lining of cells
  16. carbohydrates?
    • contain primilarly C, O, H 
    • breads and sugars 
    • simple or complex
  17. phospholipds?
    • primary component of animal cell membranes 
    • dual nature
  18. dual nature?
    • polar head= hydrophilic 
    • non polar tails= hydrophobic
  19. proteins?
    • amino acids make up proteins 
    • have an amino grp (NH2) and carboxyl grp (COOH) attached to central carbon 
    • different side chains make the amino acids different from each other
  20. peptide?
    two or more amino acids bonded together
  21. polypeptide?
    chain of many amino acids bonded together
  22. How many amino acids are there?
    20 different amino acids
  23. What are the different functions of proteins?
    • enzymes- enable most chemical reactions in living organisms 
    • hormones- chemical messengers 
    • transport- move other molecules (hemoglobin)
    • protective- healing, defensive (antibodies)
    • structural- mechanical support (keratin-hair)
    • contractile- movement (muscle contraction)
  24. nucleotides?
    • monomers of nucleic acids
    • composed of a phosphate group (sugar and nitrogenous base)
  25. ATP?
    • adensoine tripohshate 
    • a nucleotide
    • energy providing molecule of cells
  26. What are the four nitrogenous bases foudn in DNA?
    • Adenine (A)
    • Cytosine (C)
    • Guanine (G)
    • Thymine (T)

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