World Studies Guide.txt

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World Studies Guide.txt
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World Studies Study Guide
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Guide created by questions based on Christina Bachl's guide
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  1. Define Constantine
    An emperor of the Roman Empire and the founder of Constantinople.
  2. Define Justinian
    One of the best Byzantine emperors.
  3. Define schism
    A split, particularly in a church or religion.
  4. Define nomads
    People with no permanent home, who move from place to place in search of food, water, or pasture.
  5. Define caravan
    A group of traders traveling together for safety.
  6. Define mosque
    A Muslim house of worship.
  7. Define Quran
    The holy book of Islam.
  8. Define caliph
    A Muslim ruler.
  9. Define clan
    A group of families who trace their roots to the same ancestors.
  10. Define Swahili
    Bantu language with arabic words, spoken along the East African coast.
  11. Define city-state
    A city that is also a separate, independent state.
  12. Define dynasty
    A series of rulers from the same family.
  13. Define archipelago
    A group or chain of many islands.
  14. Define feudalism
    A system in which poor people are legally bourn to work for wealthy landowners.
  15. Define Akrbar
    The greatest Mughal leader of India.
  16. Define Taj Mahal
    A tomb built by Shan Jahan for his wife.
  17. Define sultan
    A Muslim ruler.
  18. Define serf
    A farm worker considered part of the manor in which he or she worked.
  19. Define clergy
    Persons with authority to perform religious services.
  20. Define Manor
    A large estate often including farms and a village, ruled by a Lord.
  21. Define crusades
    A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy Land back from Muslim control.
  22. Define Magna Carta
    The "Great Character" in which the king's power over his nobles was limited, agreed by king John of England in 1215.
  23. Define Mongols
    They were nomads from the plains of central Asia, north of China; fierce warriors.
  24. Define Mali
    A rich kingdom of western Africa Savanna.
  25. Define Martin Luther
    German Monk, whose protests against certain abuses of the Roman Catholic Church led to the Protestant Reformation.
  26. Define Kilwa
    One of many trading cities of East African coast.
  27. Define Henry VIII
    King of England from 1509 to 1547: separated the English Church from Rome to begin the English Reformation, father of Elizabeth I.
  28. Define Charlemagne
    King of the Franks who conquered and ruled much of western Europe; patron of literature and learning.
  29. Define Reinassance
    The period of the rebirth of the learning in Europe between about 1300 and 1600.
  30. Define oral history/tradition
    Accounts of the past that people pass down by word of mouth.
  31. Define migration
    The movement from one country or region to settle in another.
  32. Define Bantu
    A large group of central and Southern Africans who speak related languages.
  33. Define Samurai
    Japanese warriors.
  34. Define Shiite
    One of the two group of Muslims. They are the smaller group. They thought that the ruler should be a man who was a direct descendant of Muhammad.
  35. Define Sunnis
    The larger group of Muslims. They say that any truly religious Muslim man of Muhammad's tribe could lead the community. 85% of Muslims are Sunni.
  36. Define Basil II
    He ruled the Byzantine Empire from 976 until 1025. It was the most exceptional period of Byzantine history since the rule of Justinian.
  37. Define Bushido Code
    A strict set of rules Samurai obeyed. According to bushido, honor meant more than wealth or even life itself. This code said that Samurai should never show weakness or surrender to an enemy. The true Samurai had no fear of death, or would rather die than shame himself. He was expected to commit ritual suicide rather than betray the code of bushido.
  38. Define Confucious
    A man that started teaching Confucianism. He was born in a poor family in China.
  39. Define peasants
    The majority of people of Medieval Europe, a group of people who made their living as farmers and laborers.
  40. The emperor Constantine has a well-known reputation in Byzantine History. Find 5 contributions he made to society. Also explain how his conversion to Christianity affected religion in the Byzantine Empire.
    • - He unified the Byzantine Empire by having one religion.
    • - He created a new capital.
    • - He built cathedrals, public baths.
    • - Thanks to him, there was a lot of good trade.
    • - Where Constantinople was located was a very good strategic place for trade.
  41. Constantinople is modern day Istanbul. Give 3 reasons why its location was beneficial to the growth of the Byzantine Empire.
    • - It helped with trade.
    • - They could charge taxes to the people that passed through.
    • - A lot of culture came into the empire.
  42. The Byzantine Empire grew tremendously and has been one of the longest lasting empires in the world. Give 6 reasons for its growth.
    • - Trade
    • - They made water aqueducts.
    • - Charged taxes
    • - Advances in technology.
    • - One religion.
    • - Strange military
  43. As with most empires, the Byzantine Empire fell. Give 5 reasons for the end of the Byzantine Empire.
    • - Attacks
    • - Divide empire
    • - Black death (plague)
    • - Lose lands
    • - Corruption
  44. What is the name of the first pillar of Islam and its characteristics?
    • Shahada:
    • They have to pray regularly this:
    • " There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah." This is translated.
  45. What is the name of the second pillar of Islam and its characteristics?
    • Salat:
    • They have to pray 5 times a day in the direction of Mecca. They have to pray at:
    • Dawn
    • Midday
    • Afternoon
    • Sunset
    • Night time
  46. What is the name of the third pillar of Islam and its characteristics?
    • Zakat:
    • If you do it, you go to the gateway to heaven. You have to give things to the sick and poor.
  47. What is the name of the fourth pillar of Islam and its characteristics?
    • Sawm:
    • Fast during a month: you can only eat at night.
  48. What is the name of the fifth pillar of Islam and its characteristics?
    • Hagg:
    • You have to go to Mecca at least once in your life.
  49. List 6 major events in the life of Muhammad relating to his foundation and importance of Islam.
    • 1: Muhammad was born in 570, in a poor family.
    • 2: He was born and grew in Mecca.
    • 3: He liked to be alone and think about society's problems.
    • 4: When he was 40 years old, he first heard God speak to him in the cave.
    • 5: In 622, he and his followers were invited to Yathrib.
    • 6: He returned to Mecca in 630 and people believed in him. He died 2 years later.
  50. Islam is categorized into two major branches- Sunni and Shiite. List 3 beliefs unique to each and 3 similarities
    • Sunni beliefs:
    • - Any religious Muslim could be leader.
    • - Muslims scholars could best explain the Quran.
    • - Do not think that the Imams lineage holds special religious inspiration.
    • Shiite beliefs:
    • - Muhammad's descendant should be the ruler.
    • - The descendant would explain the message in the Quran.
    • - Imams were sinless and chosen by God through Muhammad.
    • Sunni and Shiite shared beliefs:
    • - Believe in Judgment Day.
    • - Believe there is salvation.
    • - Had the same leader at the beginning.
  51. Justinian's code was revolutionary at the time. What was his code? How is his code used for models of law today? Give 2 examples.
    His code was an organized collection and explanation of Roman laws for use by the Byzantine Empire. It became the basis of legal systems of most modern European countries.
  52. Basil II's was a well-respected emperor in the Byzantine Empire due to major accomplishments to strength the empire. List 2 of these accomplishments.
    • - The empire regained some of the land it had lost.
    • - There was a burst of creativity in the arts.
  53. Bantu migration is a strong part of Africa's history. List 2 ways Bantu culture was affected when they met other people groups and list 3 reasons why Bantu migrations are important to the history of Africa.
    • - Bantus learned to raise different crops and different animals.
    • - They realized their power; they even forced other people to leave their land so they could stay there.
    • - Now, thanks to this migration, more than 200 million Africans speak Bantu languages.
    • - Bantu people spread their culture.
    • - Older cultures adapted to Bantu cultures.
  54. Africa has 4 main physical geographical features. List all 4 and give 3 countries in Africa where they may be found.
    • Savanna:
    • Areas of grassland with scattered trees and bushes.
    • - Zambia
    • - Zimbabwe
    • - Kenya
    • Desert:
    • Hot, dry place of sand dunes.
    • - Algeria
    • - Mali
    • - Chad
    • Coniferous Forest:
    • These forests consist mainly on cone-bearing trees.
    • - Algeria
    • - Tanzania
    • - Madagascar
    • Tropical Rainforest:
    • An ecosystem with high average temperature and with a lot of rain.
    • - Liberia
    • - Sierra Leona
    • - Gabon
  55. West Africa had 3 main kingdoms between the 9th and 6th centuries. List the kingdom and describe 3 facts that caused them to be wealthy and powerful.
    • Ghana:
    • - Took control of the trading routs.
    • - Was located north of the gold fields
    • - Land routes passed through the kingdom.
    • Mali:
    • - Sundiata united the kingdom.
    • - They took control of salt and gold trade.
    • - Conquered and increased the size of their kingdom.
    • Songhai:
    • - Controlled the trade routes and sources of gold and salt.
    • - Conquered rich city of Tombouctou.
    • - There was a Muslim dynasty.
  56. Great Zimbabwe and Kilwa depend on one another for their economic success. List 2 factors that connected these two regions and contributed to their mutual success.
    • Much of the gold traded by Kilwa was mined in Great Zimbabwe.
    • Great Zimbabwe controlled the place where the gold was mined.
  57. SjsnjsnxnxjxjxjjxjxjThe Grand Canal greatly impacted the ability to transport items from rural villages to major cities in China. List the rivers and 4 villages/cities that were connected along this new trade route.
    • Hai river
    • Yellow river
    • Yangzte river
    • Quiantang river
    • Cities:
    • Huai'an
    • Nanwang
    • Tianjin
    • Zhenjlang
    • Hangzhou
    • Nangang
    • Linqing
  58. The reputation of the Mongols and their history of invasions preceded their arrival. Where did the Mongols come from? List 3 invasions from which they are responsible.
    They attacked the Song empire, they had Korea and attempted to conquer Japan. They also invaded India. The mongols were nomads of the plains of central Asia, north of China
  59. Akbar the great was a Mughal emperor in the 1500s. List 3 contributions he made to India's strengthening power.
    • Expanded the Mughal Empire.
    • Encouraged arts
    • Helped Hindus and Muslims live peacefully together.
  60. India has 4 main physical geographical features. List 4 and define each one.
    • River:
    • They have the Indus and the Ganges rivers.
    • Sea:
    • West India is the Arabian Sea and to the east is Bay of Bengai.
    • Plains:
    • You can plant on them they are south Himalayas.
    • Mountains:
    • The Himalayas are located north India and are a protection against other kingdoms, they offer a barrier.
  61. Japan, due to its geography, is an isolated nation. However, they formed a strong trade system during the Medieval Times, especially with Europe. List 2 countries Japan traded with, and 2 impacts these countries had on Japan.
    Japan first traded with China in 800's. This influenced Japan's culture, it became similar to Chinese. In 1500's, Portuguese ships landed on Japan. They became interested in the guns the europeans carried.
  62. Samurai warriors followed strict set of rules for behavior called bushido. They swore an oath to follow these rules without question, even to death. Explain how, for a Samurai, death would bring honor.
    To commit suicide instead of betray the code of bushido.
  63. The Chinese are known for many things, especially for their inventions. List and explain 4 inventions attributed to the Chinese.
    • Gunpowder:
    • It was invented in 800's. They used it to make fireworks and then used it in weapons.
    • Smallpox vaccine:
    • An invention from the 900's. It consisted in giving small amounts of smallpox to healthy people and they developed immunity to them.
    • Compass:
    • It is magnetic. Sailors used it in 100's for long voyages.
    • Movable type
    • Consists in individual characters carved in blocks. These blocks can be arranged in different orders (1045).
  64. Confucius was a well-known philosopher from China. List 5 of his teachings and 2 ways these teachings were influential to Chinese history.
    • Jen/Ren: It teaches to be kind with others.
    • Li: respect social behavior rules.
    • Zhong/Chung: being loyal to government.
    • Shu: reciprocity.
    • Xiao/Hsiao: the love that exists in the family, includes child-parent love.
    • It influenced spiritual and political life in China.
    • Tang Taizong began to reform the government according to Conficious's ideas.
  65. The Mughal Empire lasted from 1500s to the 1700s. List two reasons for its decline.
    • Akbar's grandson, Shan Jahan spent money on extravagant buildings and the Taj Mahal.
    • Jahan's son, Aurangzeb reversed Akbar's Hindu policies, he wanted to make them Muslims.
  66. The Renaissance is considered to be the rebirth of learning in Europe. List 3 facts that support this idea.
    • Scholars of Italy looked back to the ideas of ancient Rome and Greece.
    • "The artists of the Renaissance studied and copied the more realistic art of Greece and Rome.
    • Ruins of Rome architecture inspired study and gave a new focus to the achievements of individual people.
  67. The Crusades were a series of military expeditions launched by Christian europeans. List 6 reasons the Crusades took place.
    • They wanted to capture the Holy Land.
    • The Byzantine emperor asked Pope Urban the II ti send knights to defend his christian empire from turks.
    • Unite Europeans
    • Get power for the church
    • Control key trade routes
    • Have more land
  68. King Henry VIII decided to leave the Catholic Church while e was in power in England. List 2 reasons for his leaving.
    • So he didn't have to share power with the Catholic Church.
    • To become head of Church of England; had political and religious power.
  69. Martin Luther broke out from the Catholic Church to form a nee branch of Christianity called Protestantism. List 3 similarities between Luther's beliefs and the Catholic Churches beliefs. Then list 3 differences between their beliefs.
    • Similarities:
    • He believed in God.
    • Believed in what the Bible says.
    • Believed in Christ.
    • Differences:
    • Indulgences should not be sold.
    • People didn't need a Pope or a church official to tell them what the Bible means.
    • Faith in God coupled with common sense.

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