PS5 FINAL

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Author:
jeo
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276512
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PS5 FINAL
Updated:
2014-06-10 03:12:37
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PS5
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PS5
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  1. What are the vital functions of muscles?
    • Some vital functions of muscles are:
    • Movement
    • maintenance of posture
    • supporting organs
    • Heat generation
  2. How do muscles use ATP?
    Muscles use ATP by converting it to mechanical energy to allow us to do work.
  3. What are muscles?
    Muscles are tissues with a high metabolic rate that constantly store and use nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids
  4. Simply put, muscles function in two ways: to generate __________ , and to allow __________.
    Simply put, muscles function in two ways: to generate FORCE, and to allow LOCOMOTION.
  5. About how many skeletal muscles are found in the human body?
    There is about 700 skeletal muscles in the human body.
  6. What is the make-up of every muscle (to the muscle proteins)?
    • The muscle make-up is:
    • Muscle -> fascicle -> muscle cell -> myofibril -> sarcomere -> Actin and Myosin
  7. About how many muscles cells are in a fascicle?
    There is around 200 muscle cells in a fascicle
  8. About how many sarcomeres in a myofibril?
    There are around 10,000 sarcomeres in a myofibril
  9. How many thin filaments surround a thick filament in a sarcomere?
    There are 6 thin filaments that surround a thick filament in a sarcomere.
  10. How are muscle cells different than other cells?
    Muscle cells are long, cylindrical shape that are bigger than the typical cell. They also have a sacroplasmic reticulum, a modified smooth endoplasmic reticulum, used for calcium storage. They are full of mitochondria, and have lots of glycogen storage.
  11. Individual muscle cells are controlled by __________.
    Individual muscle cells are controlled by MOTOR NEURONS.
  12. The cell body of the motor neuron is located in the __________ whereas the axon terminals extend to the __________ cell.
    The cell body of the motor neuron is located in the SPINAL CORD whereas the axon terminals extend to the MUSCLE cell.
  13. The synapse formed by the axon terminal and the muscle cell is called the __________ junction.
    The synapse formed by the axon terminal and the muscle cell is called the NEUROMUSCULAR junction.
  14. The space between the axon terminal and muscle membrane is called the __________ cleft.
    The space between the axon terminal and muscle membrane is called the SYNAPTIC cleft.
  15. How does acetylcholine function to cause muscle movement?
    The action potential releases acetylcholine that binds to some receptors in the muscle membranes call SARCOLEMMA.
  16. Cancer is __________ and __________ cell growth.
    Cancer is ABNORMAL and UNCONTROLLED cell growth.
  17. When does cancer occur?
    Cancer occurs when oncogenes are over expressed, and/or suppressor genes are under expressed.
  18. Apotosis is programmed __________ death.
    Apotosis is programmed CELL death.
  19. Anastomosis - __________ of two structures (usually tubular)
    Anastomosis - CONNECTION of two structures (usually tubular)
  20. anabolic- building up __________ from smaller structures.
    anabolic- building up MOLECULES from smaller structures.
  21. Salivary amylase- breaks down __________ originates from __________ and released in the __________.
    Salivary amylase- breaks down carbs originates from salivary glands and released in the mouth.
  22. pancreatic amylase- breaks down __________ originates from __________ and released in the __________.
    pancreatic amylase- breaks down carbs originates from pancreas and released in the duodenum.

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