Research

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Author:
shmvii
ID:
276522
Filename:
Research
Updated:
2014-06-10 09:25:09
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license exam
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research
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  1. validity vs reliability
    how well a test/instrument/procedure measures what it's supposed to measure

    how consistent the test/tester is
  2. objective vs subjective test
    designed so regardless of who grades it the results are always the same

    results depend on the grader (perception, skill...)
  3. independent vs dependent variables
    the variable being manipulated by the researcher (an exercise, ultrasound...)

    the variable being measured, the outcome (ROM, pain, HR...)
  4. sensitivity - if it's high you'll have many/few
    • many true positives
    • few false negatives
  5. specificity - if it's high you'll have many/few
    • many true negs
    • few false positives
  6. explain SnOut
    if sensitivity is high (many true pos, few false negs) then if the test comes back neg you can rule out the pt has the diagnosis
  7. explain SpIn
    if specificity is high (many true neg, few false pos) and the test is pos, the pt probably has the diagnosis
  8. null hypothesis
    • predicts no significant difference between groups or treatments
    • (if it's rejected it means there was a significant difference)
  9. directional hypothesis
    predicts an expected rel btwn variables
  10. t-test
    tests if there's a statistical diff btwn 2 groups (test must have 1 dependent and 1 indep variable)
  11. analysis of variance (ANOVA)
    • like t-test but for 3 or more groups
    • can have more indep variables
  12. chi square test
    shows whether the observed pattern, trait, distribution is diff from what would've been expected by chance alone
  13. epidemiology
    study of distribution and causes of health-related situations in populations and the application of info to control health problems
  14. P value at .05 vs .01
    • there's 5% chance it would've occurred like this at random. 
    • 1% chance

    also called the alpha level
  15. likelihood ratios - above __ rules in the dx, below __ rules it out
    • >10 rules in
    • < 0.1 rules out
    • in between = inconclusive
  16. developmental vs longitudinal research
    studies behaviors that differentiate individuals at diff levels of age, growth, maturation

    differentiate changes in people over time
  17. qualitative research gets data how?
    uses people's own written or spoken words
  18. correlation coefficient -- what's the range
    • -1 to 1
    • the closer to -1, the more inverse the rel
    • at 0, there's no rel
    • at 1 it's a pos correlation
  19. within-subject design vs btwn-subject design
    subject serves as their own controls -- randomly assigned to treatment or no-treatment blocks

    comparisons made btwn groups of subjects
  20. nominal scale
    has 2 categories -- m/f, y/n
  21. ordinal scale
    rankings in an order but intervals btwn ranks are unequal -- MMT (normal, good, fair, poor, trace, zero)
  22. interval scale
    has a ranking system with equal intervals but no true zero point (temperature, IQ tests)
  23. ratio scale
    like interval but w zero (height, weight, goniometry)
  24. Hawthorne effect
    subject's knowledge of participation in an experiment influences the results
  25. intertester
    • same as interrater
    • intratester is same as intrarater
    • They refer to the person giving the test, not to the subject
  26. cohort study
    • prospective (forward in time)
    • follows a group of people with a condition for a defined period of time and compares to a group that doesn't have the condition
  27. case-control study
    retrospective, comparing a group with a condition to a group that doesn't have it to determine factors that may have played a roll in it
  28. level 5 / grade D evidence
    expert opinion or observations not made on pts
  29. level 4 /grade C evidence
    • descriptive
    • case-series, poor quality cohort and case-control studies
  30. level 3 / grade B evidence
    case-control, retrospective
  31. level 2 / grade B evidence
    cohort studies, prospective,
  32. level 1 / grade A evidence
    systematic reviews, randomized control trials, or overwhelming evidence of effect of a treatment
  33. mean, median, mode
    average, middle, most common
  34. type I error vs type II error
    • type I: null hypothesis is rejected when it's true (thought there was significance when it was just chance)
    • type II: it's not rejected when it's false (thought it was chance when there was significance)

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