# Research

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1. validity vs reliability
how well a test/instrument/procedure measures what it's supposed to measure

how consistent the test/tester is
2. objective vs subjective test
designed so regardless of who grades it the results are always the same

results depend on the grader (perception, skill...)
3. independent vs dependent variables
the variable being manipulated by the researcher (an exercise, ultrasound...)

the variable being measured, the outcome (ROM, pain, HR...)
4. sensitivity - if it's high you'll have many/few
• many true positives
• few false negatives
5. specificity - if it's high you'll have many/few
• many true negs
• few false positives
6. explain SnOut
if sensitivity is high (many true pos, few false negs) then if the test comes back neg you can rule out the pt has the diagnosis
7. explain SpIn
if specificity is high (many true neg, few false pos) and the test is pos, the pt probably has the diagnosis
8. null hypothesis
• predicts no significant difference between groups or treatments
• (if it's rejected it means there was a significant difference)
9. directional hypothesis
predicts an expected rel btwn variables
10. t-test
tests if there's a statistical diff btwn 2 groups (test must have 1 dependent and 1 indep variable)
11. analysis of variance (ANOVA)
• like t-test but for 3 or more groups
• can have more indep variables
12. chi square test
shows whether the observed pattern, trait, distribution is diff from what would've been expected by chance alone
13. epidemiology
study of distribution and causes of health-related situations in populations and the application of info to control health problems
14. P value at .05 vs .01
• there's 5% chance it would've occurred like this at random.
• 1% chance

also called the alpha level
15. likelihood ratios - above __ rules in the dx, below __ rules it out
• >10 rules in
• < 0.1 rules out
• in between = inconclusive
16. developmental vs longitudinal research
studies behaviors that differentiate individuals at diff levels of age, growth, maturation

differentiate changes in people over time
17. qualitative research gets data how?
uses people's own written or spoken words
18. correlation coefficient -- what's the range
• -1 to 1
• the closer to -1, the more inverse the rel
• at 0, there's no rel
• at 1 it's a pos correlation
19. within-subject design vs btwn-subject design
subject serves as their own controls -- randomly assigned to treatment or no-treatment blocks

comparisons made btwn groups of subjects
20. nominal scale
has 2 categories -- m/f, y/n
21. ordinal scale
rankings in an order but intervals btwn ranks are unequal -- MMT (normal, good, fair, poor, trace, zero)
22. interval scale
has a ranking system with equal intervals but no true zero point (temperature, IQ tests)
23. ratio scale
like interval but w zero (height, weight, goniometry)
24. Hawthorne effect
subject's knowledge of participation in an experiment influences the results
25. intertester
• same as interrater
• intratester is same as intrarater
• They refer to the person giving the test, not to the subject
26. cohort study
• prospective (forward in time)
• follows a group of people with a condition for a defined period of time and compares to a group that doesn't have the condition
27. case-control study
retrospective, comparing a group with a condition to a group that doesn't have it to determine factors that may have played a roll in it
28. level 5 / grade D evidence
expert opinion or observations not made on pts
29. level 4 /grade C evidence
• descriptive
• case-series, poor quality cohort and case-control studies
30. level 3 / grade B evidence
case-control, retrospective
31. level 2 / grade B evidence
cohort studies, prospective,
32. level 1 / grade A evidence
systematic reviews, randomized control trials, or overwhelming evidence of effect of a treatment
33. mean, median, mode
average, middle, most common
34. type I error vs type II error
• type I: null hypothesis is rejected when it's true (thought there was significance when it was just chance)
• type II: it's not rejected when it's false (thought it was chance when there was significance)
 Author: shmvii ID: 276522 Card Set: Research Updated: 2014-06-10 13:25:09 Tags: license exam Folders: Description: research Show Answers: