Claudius' Frontier and Provincial Policy
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New provinces added under Claudius' rule...
- Claudius added 5 new provinces during his rule
- And two in Mauretania
Whose foreign policy did Claudius emulate
- Claudius' foreign policy tended to follow that of Julius Caesar as opposed to Augustus
- He favoured expansion and assimilation
What did Claudius want to be known as
"extender of the empire"
How does suetonius describe the conquest of Britain
- Suetonius describes the conquest in an unenthusiastic manner:
- "Claudius' sole campaign was of no great importance. The senate had already voted him triumphal decorations... [Claudius ] decided that Britain was the country where a real triumph could be lost readily earned "
Reasons why the conquest of Britain was important
- Given Claudius physical disabilities he was an unlikely military leader and so it allowed him to demonstrate his skill
- Satisfied Claudius' personal ambition
- Instrumental in his popularity and strengthened his regime
How does Suetonius describe the aftermath of the conquest of Britain
- Claudius was awarded a triumph for the conquest and suetonius describes it as "a very splendid one"
- Claudius personally acknowledged the victory by changing his sons name to Britanicus
Southeast Europe and the Danube
He returned control of Achea and Macedonia to the senate
Claudius dealt with a rebellion in Mauritania in AD44 and he annexed and divided it into 2 provinces; Tingitana and Caesariensis
Rough summary of the conquest of Britain
Campaign began in AD43 when troops reached British shores and lasted about 12 years under a series of leaders appointed by Claudius and by AD54 most of the south of England was under roman control
Why might suetonius have not been very impressed with the conquest of Britain
Because the continued success of Claudius' forces during the annexation of Britain was largely due to the failure of the British tribes to unite against their opposition
What was Claudius' policy toward the Rhine and Germany
Claudius basically didn't change Tiberius' policy towards the Rhine and Germany but he did extent the frontier slightly
What does Tacitus tell us about problems in the Rhine and Germany
- The Cherusci asked rome for a king and Claudius gave the Royal prince Italicus money and an escort to Germany
- But some Germans later raided lower Germany and Corbulo, the new governor, arrived
- But then Claudius stepped in and "forbade further agression against the Germans" and withdrew the troops
Why did Claudius award Corbulo a triumph even through he had forbidden the war in Germany
He awarded him a triumph because Claudius wanted to be seen to recognise military achievement and because it publicised the idea that military success prospered under his rule
What did Claudius do in Parthia
- Claudius promoted internal strife within Parthia in order to keep them occupied
- However by the end of his rule the parthians had gained control of Armenia
The major failure of Claudius' foreign policy
- In AD44 he reversed Gaius' arrangements in Judea, reverting the area back to provincial status
- This meant the area was governed by pro-curators who proved to be ineffective, cruel and incompetent
What did Claudius do in the east
- He annexed and organised the new provinces of Lycia in AD43 and Thrace in AD46
- He also enlarged Syria which allowed him to spread roman influence around the black Sea
What was Claudius interested in
- He was interested in rasing the status of the provincials by encouraging romanisation and extending roman citizenship
- He founded colonies and made it possible for provincials to enter the senate
What does Suetonius tell us about Claudius' treatment of individual provincial peoples
- He granted the Trojans perpetual exemption from tribute
- Restored self governance to the Rhodians to express his pleasure at their moral improvement
- Restored the provinces of Achia and Macedonia to the senate
According to Tacitus , what was Claudius' argument for allowing provincials into the senate
- He argued that the provincials would "reinvigorate the exhausted empire"
- And that they should "let them bring their gold and wealth rather than keep it to themselves"
What can be argued about Claudius' foreign policy
That the senate approving Claudius' speech and allowing provincials into the senate shoe that although Claudius wanted to be hailed for adding new territories to the empire, his real skill was in administration
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