The Ara Pacis, the Julian Laws and Religion and Morality under Augustus

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  1. What does Augustus link the Ara Pacis to and where does he do this?
    • Temple of Janus
    • Paragraph 13
  2. What is the link between the ara pacis and the temple of Janus
    • Peace
    • The closing of the temple of Janus promoted the idea that Augutsus was the bringer of peace and the ara pacis gave this idea a concrete form
  3. Where did the senate decree the ara pacis should be built
    • Campus martius
    • Augutsus wanted it to be here as it was near his mausoleum
    • It was also the traditional focus of a triumph
  4. What did the senate decree should happen every year at the ara pacis
    Vestal virgins had to offer sacrifice
  5. What does augustus refuse when he returns from gaul and how does he enter rome instead
    He refuses a triumph and enters quietly at night
  6. How long did Augutsus reduce the consulship to
    Reduced it to six months
  7. Why is the campus martius significant
    • It's where triumphs were held
    • And it was near his mausoleum
  8. Where did augustus refuse to have the ara pacis built
    In the Senate house
  9. What famous frieze is the ara pacis similar to in which country
    The parthenon in Greece
  10. What is the south procession freize mostly about
    • Augustus
    • As the procession left of Augustus is missing it could be assumed that he was surrounded by people
    • :He has concentrated his power
  11. What do the themes on the ara pacis signify collectively
    • Peace
    • Ancestry
    • Ect
  12. What is the style of the ara pacis
    Traditional and respected style
  13. What does the roma relief show
    • Shows 3 roman Gods virtus, honos and roma
    • Virtus was the god of virtue (ie. Moral excellence) and honos of honour; the choice of gods are highly representative of Augustus' beliefs and aims
  14. What are the 4 reliefs on the ara pacis
    • Tellus
    • Aeneas
    • Roma
    • Romulus and remus
  15. What is the overall message of the reliefs
    • Foundation myths
    • Military success
    • Peace
    • Continuation of the ancient city and it's life and customs
  16. What is the overarching message of the ara pacis' continual freize
    • The role of augustus as a formal military leader
    • A successful family
    • A divine background
  17. What are the images of the freize connected with
    • Foundation myths of the city
    • Peace making role
    • Formal religious practices
  18. What does the interior of the ara pacis represent
    An ancient form of sacrificial structure which contains the actual altar
  19. List the first 4 links between the ara pacis and the res gestae
    • Divine ancestry
    • Peace
    • Wealth
    • Past history and myth
  20. List the second links between the ara pacis and the res gestae
    • Traditional power structures
    • Religious revival
    • Propriety (legal and behavioral)
    • Prosperity
  21. 3 differences between the ara pacis and the res gestae
    • Positons held
    • Honours received
    • His expenditure
  22. What is happening in the south procession
    • A state ceremony (although we don't know which)
    • Augustus
    • Agrippa
    • The imperial family
    • Senators
  23. How is the image of augustus on the frieze linked to the Aeneas relief
    The way he is stood with his hand outstretched
  24. What is a definition of religion
    A code of practices, beliefs, rituals and observations
  25. What is a definition of morality
    The principles on which you base your behaviour
  26. 3 reasons why augustus wanted to revive old religious practises
    • To gain him support of the pious conservatives
    • Ti gain the support of those who believed past problems were due to the neglect of religion
    • To unite his new order with the old and himself
  27. What did augustus want to promote in the empire
    Loyalty and unity
  28. When were the secular games celebrated and why
    • 17bce
    • To mark the beginning of a new golden age and they originated with the etruscans
    • It was the greatest religious ceremony celebrated during Augustus' reign
  29. How many gladiatorial games did augustus say he gave in his own name
    • 3
    • Res gestae paragraph 22
  30. Who was his colleague when he gave the secular games
  31. Where in the res gestae does augustus discuss the secular games
    Para 22
  32. List 3 things Augutsus mentioned to do with religion in the res gestae
    • He becomes pontifex maximus - paragraph 7
    • Senate consecrated the ara pacis in his name - 12.2
    • He restored 82 temples - 20.4
  33. List 3 things Augutsus mentioned to do with morality in the res gestae
    • Supervisor of law and morals - 6.1
    • Spared the lives of citizens who asked for mercy 3.1
    • Returned ornaments to Asia - 24
  34. How many times did augustus marry and who was his 3rd wife
    • 3
    • Livia
  35. What was the problem with marriage in augustan rome
    It had broken down and ceased to be important; people were apathetic
  36. When and what were the Julian laws
    • 18BC
    • Concerned with public morality and criminal jurisdiction
  37. Who was Augustus' only child and what happened to her
    • Julia
    • She was immoral so he had her exiled
  38. What laws did augustus introduce to help with marriage, adultery and luxury
    The Julian laws
  39. Give the date of the ara pacis
  40. What does the Ara pacis celebrate
    It celebrates Augutsus' achievement in bringing peace to rome and the new prosperity that the Italians were enjoying as a result of the prolonged period of peace
  41. What does the Ara pacis strongly link to
    The closing of the gates of the temple of Janus as they both promote the idea that augustus is the author of peace
  42. Features
  43. What are the Greek influences on the ara pacis
    • The style of the processional frieze is similar to that of the parthenon
    • The scroll work and style of decoration is hellenistic in style
  44. Describe the inside of the ara pacis
    • There is a small frieze of vestal virgins, animals including bucrania (bull's skulls) and attendants
    • This decoration means it is always ready for a sacrifice
  45. Describe the lupercal relief
    Is believed to be Romulus and remus being suckled by the she wolf whilst mars approaches on the left whilst Faustulus protects them on the right
  46. What does the lupercal relief symbolise
    • The use of Mars :Augutsus had a strong association with mars the avenger
    • Augutsus wanted to monopolise the foundation myths and to use them as propaganda to further his own agenda of being associated with Romes foundations
  47. What is the problem with the roma relief
    • It was the least intact out of the reliefs
    • Suggestions on how it may have looked have been made from ancient coins that were found
  48. How does the roma relief show peace
    • Roma is sat on a pile of weapons
    • This symbolises protection and the idea that as the weapons aren't in use = peace
  49. What is the aim of the roma relief
    • To flatter Augutsus
    • It is very religious meaning we then associate him with piety and the gods and the idea that his ancestors and he is himself honourable and virtuous
  50. What is depicted on Roma's shield
    • Romulus and remus and the she wolf
    • Ties in with the lupercal relief
  51. Why was the ara pacis built
    • Celebrates his victory in gual and Spain where he had been since 16BCE
    • From 29 BCE augustus refused to accept triumphal honours so the senate had to find another way of honouring him and celebrating his return
    • But it does also have a function
  52. Why is the location of the ara pacis significant
    • It's location connotes military success
    • The altar also sits close to a sundial that symbolised the defeated and pacified egypt with Apollo on it (Appollo is Augutsus' god)
  53. Describe the acanthus relief (3 things)
    • It runs along the bottom; it is like the skeleton of the entire thing meaning that everything is encircled with life and nature
    • There are birds, insects and snakes which make the whole thing seem alive with movement.
    • It conveys an overwhelming sense of abundance and fecundity
  54. What is the significance of Acanthus
    • Acanthus was a symbol of regeneration
    • The acanthus also became like a motif in Augustus reign
  55. Why would Augustus want to be linked with Aeneas
    • He was one of the founding fathers of Rome and of the Julii clan
    • So it reinforces the themes of piety, ancestry and foundation
  56. Who was often used as a symbol of piousness in roman art
  57. Describe the "Aeneas" relief
    • Aeneas sacrificing to the pentates (the household gods of the Trojans)
    • The incomplete figure behind him could be his son and also attendants leading in the sacrificial sow
  58. What 4 things make some scholars think the Aeneas relief may actually be Numa
    • Numa was commonly associated with peace
    • This would better tie in with the frieze of Romulus
    • Also the roman people had to be able to identify the people on the ara pacis and there are no other known images of Aeneas bearded and middle aged
    • Numa is also associated with the gates of Janus
  59. What does the "Numa" relief depict
    Him sealing a peace treaty as he was elected second king of Rome bh the senate
  60. How does the south procession tie in with Augustus' social legislation
    Shows family and augustus anger to encourage the patrician class to have children
  61. Who are behind Augustus on the south procession
    • 4 flamines maiores wearing the characteristic spiked hat
    • They were priestly officials who attended to various cults
  62. Name 5 of the members of the imperial family suspected of being in the south procession
    • Livia
    • Tiberius
    • Germanicus
    • Drusus (Tiberius' brother)
    • Agrippa
  63. What is behind Drusus on the south procession
    • A woman putting a finger to her lips which suggests respectful silence
    • Perhaps a reference to Drusus' death in 9BCE (the same year that the ara pacis was completed)
  64. Rather than have children what did the upper classes prefer
    To indulge in luxury and huge sums of money were spent on jewelry, clothes and food
  65. What did Augutsus make the punishment for adultery
    Guilty parties were sent to different islands and large parts of their estate confiscated
  66. What age limits did Augutsus set on marriage
    • 25 for men and 20 for women
    • He hoped this would encourage marriage and the rearing of children
  67. What is an indication on the effectiveness of augustus' laws on marriage
    The fact that the two consuls who proposed the adjustments to the Julian law in AD 9 were themselves were unmarried
  68. How else did Augutsus try to encourage the upper classes to marry
    • He imposed pénalités on unmarried people, such as restrictions on when they could accept inheritances
    • Preference was also given to family men in elections and the allocation of provinces
  69. What did he do in 18BCE
    He used his tribunician powers to legislate and push through the Julian laws
  70. Suetonius' gossip on Augustus
    • Suetonius was very much privy to court gossip and he records some of the things that he heard about Augutsus such as
    • He was a serial adulterer
    • He had a fondness for corinthian bronzes and de flowering girls
    • However modern historian Pamela Bradley maintains that this is just gossip and "can be discounted"
  71. Who supported Augutsus' social legislation
    The contemporary poets Horace and Ovid
  72. What had the dependence of roman society led to in the last few years of the republic
    • Civil wars and violence
    • New cults from the east
    • Scepticism among the upper classes
  73. What did augustus not encourage
    • He did not encourage worship of himself individually in Rome as this was contrary to the principate
    • But he allowed in the provinces
  74. What did augustus encourage
    He encouraged the worship of dieties associated with the common people, such as the Lares who guarded the home
  75. How did he re organise religion
    He divided the city into 265 areas each with a shrine and a wardmaster
Card Set:
The Ara Pacis, the Julian Laws and Religion and Morality under Augustus
2014-06-10 13:39:12
Classics Augustus

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