Psyc 3240 exam1

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Psyc 3240 exam1
2014-06-10 20:49:54
Sroka psyc3240

Exam one
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  1. Who is G. Stanley Hall:
    • Father of scientific study of adolescence.
    • Known for "Storm and Stress" which means adolescence is by its very nature turbulent and full of conflict and mood swings.  
    • Theory of Recapitulation: argues each individual's development paralleled the development of the entire species
    • Ages 12-23
    • If we study one, we know all.
  2. What is the sociocultural view of adolescence?
    • Mead.  
    • Emphasis on environment, not biology.
    • cultures that emphasize smooth transition from childhood to adulthood won't have "storm & stress"
  3. What is Continuity-discontinuity issue?
    • The argument of how development progresses.
    • Continuity: development occurs gradually and continuously
    • Discontinuity:  Development is stage-like
  4. What are some gender differences in hormones in puberty
    • Girls produce 8x more estradiol (estrogen) boys produce 2x
    • Boys produce 20x more testosterone, girls produce 4x
    • Adrenarche
    • occurs usually between ages 6-9
    • in girls and 7-10 in boys, and apparently isn’t well understood yet, but is
    • when the adrenal glands start producing hormones. It actually occurs before the
    • onset of puberty.

    • Gonadarche follows adrenarche by 2 years. It involves the
    • maturation of primary sexual characteristics (testes and ovaries) and secondary
    • sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breast, genital development), and this is
    • when that HPG axis is activated
    • 10-11 age of boys
    • 9-10 non-Latino girls
    • 8-9 African American girls

    • Menarche
    • is the first menstrual period in girls

    • Spermarche is the first ejaculation of semen
    • in boys
  5. What are some cultural factors related to onset of menarche?
    • Negative view of menarche: some
    • think it can present danger to the growth of crops, the health of livestock,
    • and the success of hunters, so  In
    • many cultures menstruating women are restricted from food preparation and
    • consumption, social activities, religious practices, bathing, school
    • attendance, and sexual activities
    • Positive
    • view: Some cultures believe menstrual blood has positive powers—some see it as
    • promoting fertility, some use it in medical treatments, or in love potions
  6. What are risk factors for early vs. late maturation (onset of menarche)
    • Early:
    • more problems in school
    • more popular with boys
    • more satisfies with body image (early on)
    • more vulnerable to psychological problems (substance use, early sexual intercourse, delinquency, depression, sensitivity to interpersonal stress)
    • Girls: 
    • In general, become less satisfied with their bodies through puberty.
  7. What is Gonadarche and what happens during it?
    • Gonadarche follows adrenarche by 2 years. It involves the
    • maturation of primary sexual characteristics (testes and ovaries) and secondary
    • sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breast, genital development), and this is
    • when that HPG axis is activated
  8. What are Piaget's stages?
    • The sensorimotor stage: 0-2, is focused
    • on coordinating the activities of the senses with motor activities.

    The preoperational stage: 2-7, is when children become capable of symbolic thinking, such as the use of language, or using a broom to represent a horse.

    The concrete operations stage: 7-11, children focus on what can be experienced and manipulated in the environment. His example for this stage is that you can take a glass of water, pour it into a taller, thinner glass, and kids at this age will understand that the amount of water didn't change.

    • The formal operations stage begins at age 11 and lasts until about age 15 or 20. At
    • this age, children can use logical and systematic thinking, use reasoning, and
    • think scientifically. He called this hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Other
    • types of thinking also emerge at this stage– abstract thinking, ability to use
    • metaphors, and ability to use sarcasm.
  9. What are Piaget's notions regarding cognitive schemas-- Assimilation vs. accomodation
    • –Schema:  –A concept or framework that exists
    • in the individual’s mind to organize and interpret information

    –Assimilation:–The incorporation of new information  into existing knowledge

    ––Accommodation: An adjustment to new information, causing the schema to change

    • –Equilibration:–When adolescents experience
    • cognitive conflict, they resolve conflict to reach a balance Schema is the cognitive framework that a person uses to organize and interpret information.

    • Assimilation is the incorporation of new information into existing frameworks, which is similar to how an infant might adjust from breastfeeding from a mother to using
    • a nipple on a bottle to feed. Accommodation is the process of expanding your knowledge when the information is contrary to the schemas you have.
  10. What are Vygotsky's theories, zone of proximal development
    • Sociocultural Theory
    • Knowledge is distributed among people and their environments
    • Knowledge is constructed through social interaction
    • The Zone of proximal development is the gape between what adolescents can do on their own and what they are capable of doing if guided by an adult or someone more competent.  They learn best if their instruction is near the top of the zone.  Scaffolding refers to the degree of assistance provided to the adolescent within this zone.
  11. What are different types of attention
    Selective attention is focusing on a specific aspect of the experience while ignoring more irrelevant parts, such as focusing on one voice in a crowded room

    Divided attention is like multitasking, focusing attention on more than one thing at a time

    Sustained attention is the ability to maintain attention to something for a long period of time– staying focused

    Executive attention involves planning, monitoring, and dealing with unexpected circumstances to complete a task
  12. What are different types of thinking
    • Making decisions
    • thinking critically
    • thinking creatively
    • metacognition (thinking about thinking)
  13. What is Erikson's theories and what is identity development
    • Identity VS. Identity Confusion (5th developmental stage)
    • Psychosicoal moratiorium: the gap between childhood security and autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their identity exploration.
    • Personality and role experimentation:  deliberate effort to find place in world.
    • Contemporary views of identity:  development is a lengthy process.  physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development advance to the point at twhich the individual can sort throgh and synthesize childhood identites and identifications to construct a viable path toward adult maturity.  
  14. What are the four statuses of Identity
    • James Marcia
    • Identity diffusion: state of adolescence when they have not yet experienced an identity crisis
    • Identity Foreclosure:  State of adolescence when they have made a commitment but have not experienced an identity crisis.  
    • Identity moratorium:  State of adolescence when they are in the midst of an identity crisis, but have not made commitment to an identity
    • Identity achievement:  Adolescents who have undergone an identity crisis and made a commitment.   
  15. What are the four ethnic identity statuses
    • Assimilation: Leaving behind the ways of one's ethnic group and adopting the values and way of life of the majority culture 
    • Separation:  Associating only with member's of one's own ethnic group and rejecting the ways of the majority culture
    • Marginality: Rejecting one's culture of origin but also feeling rejected by the majority culture
    • Biculturalism: developing a dual identity
  16. What are the big 5 personality traits and what are they associated with?
    • Openness
    • -Imaginative or practical
    • -Interested in variety or routine
    • -Independent or conforming

    • Conscientiousness
    • -Organized or disorganized
    • -Careful or careless
    • -Disciplined or implsive

    • Extraversion
    • -socialble or retiring
    • -Fun-loving or somber
    • -affectionate or reserbed

    • Agreeableness
    • -softhearted or ruthless
    • -trusting or suspicious
    • -helpful or uncooperative

    • Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)
    • -Calm or anxious
    • -Secre or insecure
    • -Self-satisfied or self-pitying
  17. What are the temperament categories
    • Positive affect and approach:  This category is much like the personality trait of extroversion/introversion
    • Negative affectibity:  This involves being easily distressed.  Closely related to the personality trait of introversion and neuroticism
    • Effortful Control (self-regulation): This involves the ability to control one's emotions