Soc 2 ch 1-5

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  1. Society
    Society is a group of people that share group membership, culture, and territory
  2. Origins of Sociology
    Began with the Industrial Revolution. People moved from farms to the city for work. cities created social problems ie. poor working conditions, pay rates and labor issues.
  3. What are the three theoretical perspectives?
    Functionalist perspective: emphasize the way in which the parts of society are structured to maintain stability. (Macro)

    Conflict perspective: Assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms of tension between groups over power, or the allocation of resources.(Macro)

    Interactionist perspective: emphasize face to face everyday interactions, how people use symbols to create social life. (Micro)
  4. Scientific Method 8 steps
    • 1. Select topic    
    • 2. Define problem
    • 3. Review Literature
    • 4. Formulate hypothesis
    • 5. Choose Research design
    • 6.Collect Data
    • 7. Analyze results
    • 8. Publish findings
  5. Define Sociology
    Sociology is the systemic study of the relationship between individuals and society and of the consequences of difference
  6. Anomie
    Anomie is loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective.
  7. Macro


    Macro: large scale or entire societies

    Micro: small scale or individual

    Meso: World Scale
  8. Sociological Imagination
    Sociological Imagination: The ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success and failure and see how one's society influences the outcome
  9. Sociological Perspective
    Sociological Perspective: Understanding human behavior by placing it within broader social context
  10. 4 key components of sociology
    • 1) Research:building systemic studies through the collection of data.
    • 2) Individual freedom to choose and act
    • 3) societies: our social environment and how we interact with each other.
    • 4)Consequences of these interactions & how they create differences between individuals, groups, countries and the world.
  11. Theory
    • A set of statements that seek to explain
    • 1. problems
    • 2. Actions
    • 3. Behaviors
  12. Culture
    Culture:Everything humans create in establishing our relationships to nature and with each other.  Learned,taught, and passed down to future generations.
  13. Society
    Society:The structure of relationship within each culture and shared through regularized patterns of social interaction
  14. Sociobiology
    Sociobiology:The systemic study of how biology affects human social behavior
  15. Discovery

    Discovery:The process of making known or sharing the existence of an aspect of reality.

    Invention:The combination of existing cultural items into a form that did not exist before.
  16. Material Culture

    non-material culture
    Material Culture: the physical or technological aspects of our daily lives

    non-material culture:Way of using material objects, as well as customs, ideas, expressions, beliefs, knowledge, philosophies, governments, and patterns of communication.
  17. Technology

    Culture lag
    Technology:A form of culture in which humans modify the natural enviorment to meet our wants and needs.

    Culture lag: A period of adjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggeling to adapt to the new matrerial conditions
  18. Language
    Language: A system of shared symbols including speech, written characters, numerals, symbols, and non verbal gestures and expressions
  19. Nonverbal communication
    Nonverbal communication: The use of facial expressions, and other visual images to communicate.
  20. Value
    Value:A collective conception of what is considered good desirable and proper-or bad undesirable, and improper in a culture.
  21. Norms

    Norms: An established standard of behavior maintained by a society.

    Folkways: Norms governing everyday behavior, whose violation raises comparatievtly little concern.
  22. Sanctions

    Dominate ideology
    Sanctions: A penalty or reward for conduct concerning a social norm

    Dominate ideology:A set of cultural beliefs and practices that legitmates existing powerful social, economic, and political interests
  23. Subculture

    Subculture: A segment of society that shares a distinctive pattern of mores, folkways, and values that differs from the pattern of the larger society.

    Counterculture: A subculture that delibertely opposes certine aspects of the larger culture.
  24. Culture shock

    Culture shock: The feelings of disorientation, uncertainty, and even fear that people experience when they encounter unfamiliar cultural practices.

    Ethnocentrism: The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent what's normal or superior to all others.
  25. Cultural Relativism

    • Cultural Relativism: The viewing of peoples behavior from the perspective of their own culture.
    • Socialization: The life long process through which people lean the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate for members of a particular culture.
  26. 6 agents of socialization
    • 1. family
    • 2. school
    • 3.peer group
    • 4.mass media/technology
    • 5.the work place
    • 6.religion and the state
  27. anticipatory socialization

    *the process of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for the future positions, occupations, and social relationships.

    The process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life.
  28. Midlife crisis

    Sandwich generation
    Midlife crisis: A stressful period of self-evaluation that begins at about age 40.

    Sandwich generation: The generation of adults who simultaneously try to meet the competing needs of their parents and their children.
  29. (Social roles)

    Role strain

    Role Exit
    Role strain: The difficulty that arises when the same social status imposes conflicting demands and expectations. 

    • Role Exit :the process of disengaging from a role that is central to one's self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity.
  30. 6 Elements of Social Structure
    • 1. Statues
    • 2. Social roles
    • 3. Groups
    • 4. master status
    • 5. Social networks
    • 6. Virtual worlds
  31. Types of status
    1. ascribed status: the social position assigned to a person by society without regard for a persons unique characteristics.

    • 2. achieved status: social status within our power to change.
    • 3. master status is a status that dominate others and determines a persons general position in society.
  32. Social Roles
    Role strain: The difficulty that arises when the same social status imposes conflicting demands and expectations. 

    Role Exit :the process of disengaging from a role that is central to one's self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity.
  33. What are primary and secondary groups
    1.Primary group:small group characterized by intimate face-to-face association and cooperation

    2. Secondary group is a formal impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding.
  34. What are "in groups" and "out groups"
    in groups are people who share a common identity and sense of belonging.

    out groups are people who do not belong or do not fit in.
  35. What is a:

    Reference Group

    Reference group is any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior.

    Coalition is a tempoary or perminate alliance geared toward a common goal.
  36. What is a Social network?
    Social networks are a series of social relationships that link individuals directly to others, and indirectly to still more people.
  37. Virtual Worlds
    Electronic manifestation of of a social network allowing an individual to create their persona
  38. Social institutions
    Social institutions are organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.
Card Set
Soc 2 ch 1-5
Chapters 1-5 vocab from SOC by Jon Witt 3rd addition.
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