Crustacea and the Pentastomida

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Author:
sarahmariko
ID:
276601
Filename:
Crustacea and the Pentastomida
Updated:
2014-06-11 00:09:30
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ENT156 MT3
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Lungs, tongues and crab louie
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  1. Parasitic copepoda: Hosts
    • External parasite commonly of fish, amphibians and whales
    • Internal parasites of invertebrates
    • Invertebrate hosts of helminth parasites of vertebrates
  2. Parasitic Copepoda:Morphology
    • a. Reduction in appendages
    • b. Adaptations for adhesion
    • c. Increase in size and proportion,
    • due to genitals
    • d. Fusion of somites, loss of
    • segmentation
    • e. Loss of sense organs
    • f. Loss of free living instars
    • (larval stages)
  3. Parasitic Copepoda:Biology and Life History
    • Egg hatches and napulius molts immediately to copepodid
    • Must find host in 24 hours
    • Grabs host with hooks on antennae and maxillae
    • Attaches frontal filament to structure under skin
    • Molts to first chalmus stage
    • 1)detach, molt reattach
    • 2)four chalmus stages
    • 3)finally detaches
    • Female locates permanent attachment place, everts bulla into tissue
    • Free living male locates and fertilizes female
  4. Branchiura- Fish Lice:Intro
    • Ectoparasites of fishes
    • swim well, leave and return to host
    • eggs laid on aquatic substrates
    • not very host specific
  5. Branchiura- Fish Lice:Morphology
    • Recognizable as a crustacean
    • Flattened dorso-ventrally
    • large sucking disks under carapace
    • modified maxillae
    • preoral spine, questionable function
  6. Branchiura- Fish Lice:Biology and life history of Argulus spp.
    • metamorphosis simple or direct
    • no larval stages-juveniles
    • sexes different at hatching
    • suckers develop from primitive maxillules
  7. Cirripeda-Parasitic Barnacles: Intro
    • internal parasites of crab and other crustacea
    • Adult root like morphology
    • -completely ramifies internal organs
    • -no gut or appendage
    • -nutrient uptake by root like processes
  8. Cirripeda-Parasitic Barnacles:Biology and life history
    • Napulius hatches from egg
    • -molts 4 times
    • -no mouth or gut, non feeding stage
    • Molts to cypris (first molt)
    • -attaches to crab host
    • -shed appendages, muscles become kentrogon (second molt)
    • Kentrogon-a hypodermic like form
    • -injects mass of cells into host
    • migrate to host intestine, attaches
    • Molts to rhizocephalan (4th molt)
    • -Grows into central mass with ramifying absorptive processes.
    • -Gonads develop, break through weakened cuticle
  9. Cirripeda-Parasitic Barnacles:Host Pathology
    • Parasitic castration
    • changes in secondary sexual characteristics: male to female
    • liver, connective tissue and thoracic ganglion damage.
  10. Malacostracha Amphipoda
    • Sand fleas, et al
    • mostly free living, whale lice
  11. Malacostracha isopoda
    • Pill bugs et al (ectoparasites of fish)
    • feed on blood, on skin, under scales, in mouth and gills
    • Economic importance
  12. Pentastomida: tongue worms (Intro/Hosts)
    • worm like parasites of the lungs of predatory vertebrates
    • Hosts:
    • adult worm in predator vertebrate
    • 1)respiratory system of reptiles (SNAKES)
    • 2)air sacks of sea birds
    • 3)naso-pharynx of canines and felines
  13. Pentastomida: tongue worms (Evolution and Phylogeny)
    • very ancient origins
    • crustacean similar spermatoza
    • shared derived characters in 16s ribosomal RNA sequence
  14. Pentastomida: tongue worms (Morphology)
    • segmented body with annuli
    • body regions: forebody and hindbody
    • two pair sclerotized double or single hooks with muscles near mouth
    • thin cuticle sometimes with spines
    • simple digestive tract, open mouth
    • dimorphic, males smaller
  15. Pentastomida: tongue worms (Biology and Life History)
    • Adults feed on predator host fluid and blood
    • eggs laid, swallowed, defecated
    • -viscid, cling together
    • -withstand desiccation
    • Larvae hatch when feces ingested by prey animal
    • -massive infections of small rodents
    • -penetrates intestine, migrates anywhere
    • larvae becomes quiet or molts to quiet nymph
    • -released when host ingested by predetor
    • -penetrates intesting, migrated to lungs, matures
    • several molts

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