Card Set Information
What are the four forms of matter?
gas, liquid, solid, plasma
What are the characteristics of a gas?
it possesses neither shape nor volume, expands indefinitely
What are the characteristics of a liquid?
they possess volume and assume the shape of their container
What are the characteristics of a solid?
They possess volume and shape. They cannot be compressed.
What is a plasma?
mixture of ionized gas and free-floating electrons
What is a substances physical properties dependent upon? What is this dictated by?
dictated by heat and pressure
What determines an element's identity?
What is an element?
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substance by chemical reactions
What are the 4 points of Dalton's Atomic Theory?
1) all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms
2) all atoms of the same element are identical
3) atoms of one element are different from another element
4) atoms combine to form molecules
What is a compound?
a pure substance of 2 or more elements in a FIXED PROPORTION by weight
What is a mixture?
a combination of elements and compounds (ex: room air)
What is a molecule?
a tightly chemically bound group of atoms
What is a chemical bond? What are the two types?
powerful attraction that holds atoms together
What happens as elements in a row move to the right?
atomic weight increases
What characterizes a family of elements?
they are in the same column
they share chemical and physical properties
Where are the protons and neutrons located?
within the nucleus
What is the atomic number?
number of protons in the nucleus
What is the atomic mass?
the weight of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
How many electrons typically are in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd orbits?
2, 8, 8
When an atom has 8 electrons in its outer orbit it is said to be _____
What are the 4 elements that are the basis for organic chemistry?
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Which iron is a component of hemoglobin?
Ferrous (Fe +2)
What is an ion? what are the two types?
a particle with an unequal number of protons and electrons
What is an ionic bond? is it weak or strong?
the attraction between positive and negative ions. strongest of the electrostatic bonds.
Ionic bonds include a ____ & _______
metal and non-metal
How does the charge relate to the strength of bond in ionic bonding?
the greater the charge, the greater the attraction
What are the 3 concepts of intermolecular forces?
2) hydrogen bonding
3) london forces
What is a dipole-dipole attraction?
the attraction between the oppositely charged ions of polar molecules
What is an ion-dipole bond?
The bond between an ion and a polar molecule
What is a hydrogen bond?
a special type of ion dipole bond that occurs when hydrogen is bound to N, O, or F
What is a London force?
An instantaneous pole that is created whenever electrons in a molecule are unevenly distributed.
What is a covalent bond?
results from SHARING one or more pairs of electrons
What is the foundational bond of organic chemistry?
the covalent bond
What is the structure of methane?
What is the structure of methyl?
What is a radical?
Any group of atoms that have bonded together to act like an individual atom in chemical reactions
How many covalent bonds can be formed with carbon
How many covalent bonds can be formed with nitrogen
3 or 4
How many covalent bonds can be formed with oxygen
How many covalent bonds can be formed with hydrogen
How many covalent bonds can be formed with sulfur
2, 4, or 6
How many covalent bonds can be formed with chlorine
How many covalent bonds can be formed with Fluorine
How many covalent bonds can be formed with Bromine
How many covalent bonds can be formed with Iodine
What is the structure of ethane?
2 carbons, 6 hydrogens (all single bonds)
How many carbons are in propane?
how many carbons are in butane?
how many carbons are in pentane?
How many carbons are in Hexane?
How many carbons are in heptane?
How many carbons are in octane?
How many carbons are in nonane?
How many carbons are in decane?
What is an alkene?
includes a double bond
What is alkyne?
includes a triple bond
What is an isomer?
compounds that have identical molecular formulas but several alternate structures
What about carbon facilitates isomers?
it has the unique ability to rotate its bonds around its central axis
What are the two types of isomers? describe.
1) Structural - differ in physical and chemical properties, same components, just arranged differently
2) Stereoisomer - identical formulas but differ in their spatial arrangement. (2 types
: optical and geometric)
What is an optical isomer?
when carbons atoms differ from on another in such a way as to polarize the light
- to the right = dextroisomer
- to the left = levoisomer
- mirror images
How do you get a racemic mixture?
combine dextro and levo isomers so that no bending of light occurs
What is a geometric isomer? What are the two types?
when a double bonded carbon prevents axial rotation so the R's move
- cis isomer (R's on same side)
- trans isomer (R's on opposite sides)
What is a functional group?
a set of atoms bound together in a specific way - responsible for the chemical and physical properties of a compound
What are the characteristics of a halogen compound?
- functiontional group is a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I)
- generic formula is R-X
What are the characteristics of an ether?
- two radical groups joined by an atom of oxygen
- oxygen is the functional group
- generic formula
What are the characteristics of an ester?
- alcohol + acid
- generic formula
What are the characteristics of an amide?
- related to carboxylic acid
- generic formula
What are the characteristics of an amine?
- functional group is the nitrogen atom
- generic formula
- can be divided into primary, secondary, tertiary depending on how many of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by a radical
- derivative of ammonia (NH3)
What are the three major categories of hormones?
- proteins or peptides
- amines or amino acids
Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Phenylephrine, dobutaine are all examples of what?
What are the general characteristics of an aromatic compound?
- 6 carbon ring with 3 double bonds
What is a hydroxyl group?
What is a methyl group?
What is an amine group?
What is an isopropyl group?
HC - CH3 - CH3
What is the difference between NE and E?
methylation of the terminal amine