IHS Chemistry

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IHS Chemistry
2014-06-11 20:48:50

IHS Chemistry
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  1. What are the four forms of matter?
    gas, liquid, solid, plasma
  2. What are the characteristics of a gas?
    it possesses neither shape nor volume, expands indefinitely
  3. What are the characteristics of a liquid?
    they possess volume and assume the shape of their container
  4. What are the characteristics of a solid?
    They possess volume and shape. They cannot be compressed.
  5. What is a plasma?
    mixture of ionized gas and free-floating electrons
  6. What is a substances physical properties dependent upon? What is this dictated by?
    • molecular activity
    • dictated by heat and pressure
  7. What determines an element's identity?
    its atoms
  8. What is an element?
    a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substance by chemical reactions
  9. What are the 4 points of Dalton's Atomic Theory?
    • 1) all matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms
    • 2) all atoms of the same element are identical
    • 3) atoms of one element are different from another element
    • 4) atoms combine to form molecules
  10. What is a compound?
    a pure substance of 2 or more elements in a FIXED PROPORTION by weight
  11. What is a mixture?
    a combination of elements and compounds (ex: room air)
  12. What is a molecule?
    a tightly chemically bound group of atoms
  13. What is a chemical bond? What are the two types?
    • powerful attraction that holds atoms together
    • 1) ionic
    • 2) covalent
  14. What happens as elements in a row move to the  right?
    atomic weight increases
  15. What characterizes a family of elements?
    • they are in the same column
    • they share chemical and physical properties
  16. Where are the protons and neutrons located?
    within the nucleus
  17. What is the atomic number?
    number of protons in the nucleus
  18. What is the atomic mass?
    the weight of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
  19. How many electrons typically are in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd orbits?
    2, 8, 8
  20. When an atom has 8 electrons in its outer orbit it is said to be _____
  21. What are the 4 elements that are the basis for organic chemistry?
    carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
  22. Which iron is a component of hemoglobin?
    Ferrous (Fe +2)
  23. Br
    Bromine 35
  24. Ca
    Calcium 20
  25. C
    Carbon 6
  26. Cl
    Chlorine 17
  27. F
    Fluorine 9
  28. He
    Helium 2
  29. H
    Hydrogen 1
  30. I
    Iodine 53
  31. Fe
    Iron 26
  32. N
    Nitrogen 7
  33. O
    Oxygen 8
  34. K
    Potassium 19
  35. Na
    Sodium 11
  36. S
    Sulfer 16
  37. What is an ion? what are the two types?
    • a particle with an unequal number of protons and electrons
    • cation (+)
    • anion (-)
  38. What is an ionic bond? is it weak or strong?
    the attraction between positive and negative ions. strongest of the electrostatic bonds.
  39. Ionic bonds include a ____ &  _______
    metal and non-metal
  40. How does the charge relate to the strength of bond in ionic bonding?
    the greater the charge, the greater the attraction
  41. What are the 3 concepts of intermolecular forces?
    • 1) dipole-dipole
    • 2) hydrogen bonding
    • 3) london forces
  42. What is a dipole-dipole attraction?
    the attraction between the oppositely charged ions of polar molecules
  43. What is an ion-dipole bond?
    The bond between an ion and a polar molecule
  44. What is a hydrogen bond?
    a special type of ion dipole bond that occurs when hydrogen is bound to N, O, or F
  45. What is a London force?
    An instantaneous pole that is created whenever electrons in a molecule are unevenly distributed.
  46. What is a covalent bond?
    results from SHARING one or more pairs of electrons
  47. What is the foundational bond of organic chemistry?
    the covalent bond
  48. What is the structure of methane?
  49. What is the structure of methyl?
  50. What is a radical?
    Any group of atoms that have bonded together to act like an individual atom in chemical reactions
  51. sulfate?
    SO4 2-
  52. Nitrate?
  53. Phosphate
    PO4 3-
  54. Carbonate
    CO3 2-
  55. Hydroxide
  56. Bicarbonate
  57. Ammonium
  58. How many covalent bonds can be formed with carbon
  59. How many covalent bonds can be formed with nitrogen
    3 or 4
  60. How many covalent bonds can be formed with oxygen
  61. How many covalent bonds can be formed with hydrogen
  62. How many covalent bonds can be formed with sulfur
    2, 4, or 6
  63. How many covalent bonds can be formed with chlorine
  64. How many covalent bonds can be formed with Fluorine
  65. How many covalent bonds can be formed with Bromine
  66. How many covalent bonds can be formed with Iodine
  67. What is the structure of ethane?
    2 carbons, 6 hydrogens (all single bonds)
  68. How many carbons are in propane?
  69. how many carbons are in butane?
  70. how many carbons are in pentane?
  71. How many carbons are in Hexane?
  72. How many carbons are in heptane?
  73. How many carbons are in octane?
  74. How many carbons are in nonane?
  75. How many carbons are in decane?
  76. What is an alkene?
    includes a double bond
  77. What is alkyne?
    includes a triple bond
  78. What is an isomer?
    compounds that have identical molecular formulas but several alternate structures
  79. What about carbon facilitates isomers?
    it has the unique ability to rotate its bonds around its central axis
  80. What are the two types of isomers? describe.
    • 1) Structural - differ in physical and chemical properties, same components, just arranged differently
    • 2) Stereoisomer - identical formulas but differ in their spatial arrangement. (2 types: optical and geometric)
  81. What is an optical isomer?
    • when carbons atoms differ from on another in such a way as to polarize the light
    • - to the right = dextroisomer
    • - to the left = levoisomer
    • - mirror images
  82. How do you get a racemic mixture?
    combine dextro and levo isomers so that no bending of light occurs
  83. What is a geometric isomer? What are the two types?
    • when a double bonded carbon prevents axial rotation so the R's move
    • - cis isomer (R's on same side)
    • - trans isomer (R's on opposite sides)
  84. What is a functional group?
    a set of atoms bound together in a specific way - responsible for the chemical and physical properties of a compound
  85. What are the characteristics of a halogen compound?
    • - functiontional group is a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I)
    • - generic formula is R-X
  86. What are the characteristics of an ether?
    • - two radical groups joined by an atom of oxygen
    • - oxygen is the functional group
    • - generic formula: R-O-R
  87. What are the characteristics of an ester?
    • - alcohol + acid
    • - generic formula: R-COO-R
  88. What are the characteristics of an amide?
    • - related to carboxylic acid
    • - generic formula: -CONH2
  89. What are the characteristics of an amine?
    • - functional group is the nitrogen atom
    • - generic formula: R-NH2
    • - can be divided into primary, secondary, tertiary depending on how many of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by a radical
    • - derivative of ammonia (NH3)
  90. What are the three major categories of hormones?
    • - proteins or peptides
    • - amines or amino acids
    • - steroids
  91. Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Phenylephrine, dobutaine are all examples of what?
    sympathomimetic amines
  92. What are the general characteristics of an aromatic compound?
    - 6 carbon ring with 3 double bonds
  93. What is a hydroxyl group?
  94. What is a methyl group?
  95. What is an amine group?
  96. What is an isopropyl group?
    HC - CH3 - CH3
  97. What is the difference between NE and E?
    methylation of the terminal amine