Chapter 3 Glossary terms

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Chapter 3 Glossary terms
2014-06-11 18:09:13
ch3 glossaryterms ms Day
Chapter 3 Glossary terms,Ms. Days class
Chapter 3 glossary terms Ms. Day's class
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  1. Biodiversity
    The number and variety of organisms found in a specific region
  2. Protect
    To legally guard from harm a species that is listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern
  3. Biodiversity hotspot
    • Exists in a place where there is an exceptionally large number of different species in a relativity small area
    • - ex. Carolinian Canada in south western Ontario
  4. Community
    A community is the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem. Because species depend on interactions it is important to preserve the biodiversity of communities in order to protect the individual species in that community =
  5. Dominant species
    Species that are so abundant that they have the biggest biomass of any community member are called dominant species. In terrestrial ecosystems, primary producers are always the dominant species. The removal of these dominant species can result in a decrease in biodiversity within an ecosystem.

    - Ex. Grass
  6. Keystone species
    A keystone species is one that can greatly affect population numbers and the health of an ecosystem. Keystone species are generally not abundant and can be plants or animals (Otters in kelp forests)
  7. Captive breeding
    The breeding of rare  or endangered wildlife in controlled settings to increase the population size

    Ex. Black footed ferrets
  8. Ecosystem engineer
    Ecosystems engineer are species that cause such dramatic changes to landscapes that they create a new ecosystem
  9. Succession
    Succession is a series of changes in an ecosystem that occurs over time, following a disturbance
  10. Habitat loss
    Occurs when events, due to natural disasters or human activities, alter a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem so much that many species can no longer survive there
  11. Deforestation
    Occurs when forests are logged or cleared for human use, and are never replanted
  12. Alien species
    • Species introduced to new parts of the biosphere from other regions, may be of food or other goods
    • - Alien species that become invasive species can take over the habitat of native species
    • (Zebra species, Round gobies)
  13. Invasive species
    A species that can take over the habitat of native species
  14. Overexploitation
    • Use or extraction of a resource until it is depleted
    • - Ex. Overfishing of Atlantic cod, over hunting of passenger pigeons
  15. Extinction
    • The death of all the individuals of a  species
    • - May happen naturally through background extinctions, caused by slow changes in ecosystems that affect species or through mass extinction, which occurs much more quickly
    • - May be caused by human activities, such as overexploitation
    • - Currently the extinction rate is estimated to be 100 to 1000 times higher than a normal background rate. Many species risk extinction, causing a biodiversity crisis
  16. Biodiversity crisis
    Currently the extinction rate is estimated to be 100 to 1000 times higher than a normal background rate. Many species risk extinction, causing a biodiversity crisis
  17. Restoration ecology
    The renewal of degraded or destroyed ecosystems through active human intervention

    Restoration methods:

    1. Reforestation - explained on other cue card

    2. Wetlands restoration: Restored to, in the greatest extent, it's natural state in terms of soil quality and composition, water coverage, the type of plants that grow there, and the habitat

    3. Controlling alien species:

    a) Biocontrol - explained on other cue card

    • b) Chemical control: Careful use of chemicals to control "Pests"
    • - Ex. Use of bait to control rat populations that kill native birds

    4. Bioremedation - explained on other cue card

    5. Bioaugmentation - explained on other cue card
  18. Reforestation
    Regrowth  a forest, either through natural processes or through the planting of seeds or trees in an area where a forest was cut down
  19. Biocontrol
    • The use of a species to control the population growth or spread of an undesirable species
    • - Ex. Use of a European fly to control the gypsy moth
    • - Ex. Use of bacteria spraying to control tent caterpillars and other forest pests
  20. Bioremediation
    • The use of living organisms to clean up contaminated areas naturally
    • - Ex. Use of bacteria to clean up oil spills on the coast
    • - Ex. Use of plants to absorb heavy metals from toxic soil
  21. Bioaugmentation
    • The use of living organisms to add essential nutrients to depleted soils
    • - Ex. Use of clover to add nitrogen to depleted soils