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1. What type of feeder outage will a Load Operator be most concerned with?
Load Operators are most concerned with sustained outages on Level 4 portions of the feeder.
2. What are the most typical causes of feeder faults?
- The most typical causes of feeder faults are:
- • Trees or branches falling on or contacting a conductor.
- • Motor vehicle accidents
- • Animals and birds
- • Fire
- • Insulator failure
- • Broken cross arms
- • Snow skip (snow falling from conductors causes them to slap together)
- • Ice load
- • Lightning
- • Pothead failure
- • UD elbow failure
- • Cable failure
3. What should a Load Operator suspect as the possible cause of a sustained feeder fault when there has been no report or evidence as to the cause of the fault?
When there is a sustained fault on the main trunk of a feeder cable and there are no reports or evidence as to the cause of the fault, it is usually due to failure of the feeder cable. It is common practice for the operator to open the field pothead switch and test energize the cable to confirm if it is the cause of the feeder outage.
4. What are some typical causes of substation equipment outages?
- Typical causes of substation equipment outages are:
- • Equipment failure including
- o Internal faults within a transformer, voltage regulator, reactor
- o Capacitor bank tripping due to successive can failures
- o Underground cable failure
- • Vandalism such as shooting insulators or transformers
- • Personnel working on protection schemes
- • Protection misoperation
- • Source outage to the transmission line(s) feeding the substation
5. What has BC Hydro done within their substations to help prevent animals and birds from causing equipment outages?
Animal and bird guarding in substations protect busses and equipment from being contacted.
1. Where is BC Hydro’s feeder reclosing policy documented?
BC Hydro’s feeder reclosing policy is described in Distribution Operating Order 1D-51.
2. How long does a Load Operator have to attempt a manual reclose on a feeder circuit breaker following a trip?
A Load Operator has 60 seconds after the forced outage to attempt a manual reclose on a feeder circuit.
3. How can a Load Operator determine if reclosing is permitted on a given feeder circuit?
The Appendix of 1D-51 defines whether a circuit is “no reclosing” or not. They are designated in SCADA with an “X” inside of the circuit breaker symbol.
4. Where is BC Hydro’s distribution substation bus reclosing policy documented?
BC Hydro distribution substation bus reclosing policy is described in System Operating Order 1T-29B.
5. How can a Load Operator determine if bus reclosing is permitted at a given substation?
- The appendix of 1T-29B lists all of BC Hydro’s distribution substations and states whether or not bus reclosing is permitted. The text “FEEDER BUS RECLOSING IN EFFECT” will appear underneath the station nameplate in SCADA. If field personnel enter a substation the entry alarm “DO NOT RECLOSE” flashing text will replace the “FEEDER BUS RECLOSING IN EFFECT” underneath the station nameplate.
- Substations that do not permit distribution bus reclosing will have no text underneath their substation nameplate.
6. What is cold-load pickup?
- Cold-load pickup is the loading imposed on the distribution system following a prolonged service interruption, after losing diversity among thermostatically controlled loads such as electric heaters, ranges and air conditioners.
- The long load recovery time and high magnitude of restoration loading will cause overloading and voltage drop on the supply system, which will cause nuisance operation of protection devices such as reclosers, station relays or transformer fuses.
- Cold load pickup has two components:
- • Transient inrush of motor stating and transformer magnetizing current
- • The enduring demand as a result of loss of diversity.
7. When is a feeder outage considered to be momentary and when is a feeder outage considered to be sustained? What are the Load Operator’s responsibilities in terms of reporting?
A feeder outage is considered to be sustained if it is one minute of longer and momentary if it is less than one minute.
- The Load Operator must:
- • Enter sustained feeder outages in CROW.
- • Verbally report sustained feeder outages and restoration to HRC
- • Notify the SCM when a system even occurs that requires reporting such as a major loss of customers, electrical contact, or equipment damage.
8. How are Power Line Technicians dispatched?
Power Line Technicians are dispatched through the Hydro Restoration Center (HRC).
9. How are Station Electricians and CPC Techs dispatched?
Station Electricians and CPC Techs are dispatched through the Control Center. Callout procedures vary and are documented in 1T-82.
1. General and role-specific logging procedures can be found in what operating order?
System Operating Order 1T-07 describes the general and role-specific logging procedures.
2. What must a Load Operator first do upon assuming PIC duties?
A Load Operator must sign the log before assuming PIC duties.
3. When is a Switching Order required?
A Switching Order is required for all switching involving three or more devices when switching instructions are issued simultaneously.
4. The Switching Order procedure is defined in what operating order?
The Switching Order procedure is defined in System Operating Order 1T-06.
5. Where are the definitions, rules, and procedures pertaining to Safety Protection Guarantees found?
The definitions, rules, and procedures pertaining to Safety Protection Guarantees are found in the Safety Practice Regulations under Section 600.
6. In addition to recording the issue of a Safety Protection Guarantee with an SPG card, what additional logging must take place?
In addition to recording the issue of a Safety Protection Guarantee with eSPG, the Load Operator will record in the paper desk log the SPG number, designation of lines and equipment to which the SPG applies, and the time and date.
1. What is the purpose of POCC?
Power On for Control Centre (POCC) is the electronic PSSP mimic display used by the Load Desks to mimic Level 4 main trunk of the distribution system outside the substation fence.
2. What operating order describes the guidelines for using and updating POCC?
Distribution Operating Order 1D-52 describes the guidelines for using and updating POCC.
3. What operating order describes specifically how POCC is to be used as a mimic display?
Distribution Operating Order 1D-06 describes how POCC is to be used as a mimic display.
4. How are reclosers and SCADA switches displayed in POCC and why?
Field reclosers and SCADA field switches are displayed in POCC as a “blue” device. A “blue” device indicates that the device status must be verified in AREVA. This avoids duplicate mimicking of devices as all field reclosers and SCADA switches are mimicked in AREVA.
5. What does the “L” symbol displayed in the POCC Schematic Window represent?
The “L” symbol displayed in POCC represents Level 4 loo[s extending from the main trunk of a feeder. It warns of the possibility of backfeed when isolating a portion of a feeder’s main trunk. POCC is not to be solely relied upon to identify the presence of loops. Primary maps and DODs should always be referenced to identify loops.
6. What is a composite schematic?
Composite schematics display multiple feeders on the same schematic so that the user can easily trace between circuits when switching involves more than one feeder.
7. Why is the POCC Geographic Window not used for operating in real time?
Load Operators do not use the Geographic Window for operation purposes because, unlike Primary Maps and DODs, it is not maintained in real time when temporary and permanent changes are made to the distribution system.
8. How can updates be made to POCC schematics in real time? What is the preferred method of updating a POCC schematic?
Updates can be made to POCC schematics in real time electronically with the POCC schematic “Editing” and “Redline” tools (preferable) or the user can print a paper copy of the POCC Schematic, mark up the paper copy by hand, and set the electronic POCC Schematic “out-of-date”.
1. Generally speaking, what is the purpose of the CROW application?
Control Room Operations Window (CROW) is a communication tool used by the control center and field staff.
- CROW is a tool to manage:
- Outage and Permit Scheduling
- Operations Logging
2. What line of operating orders are the CROW guidelines described in?
CROW guidelines are described in System Operating Order 1T-54.
3. What are the four different browsers within CROW?
- The four different browsers within CROW are:
- • Outage Requests (F2)
- • Events (F1)
- • Permit Requests (F11)
- • Station/Field Reclosing
4. What is a CROW Outage Request?
An “Outage Request” is a formal process by which planned work is evaluated and approved (scheduled) by Operations Support (Operations Planning and Outage Scheduling) for implementation by RTO, TNO, and GMC.
5. What must be done in CROW when an approved Outage Request is taken?
When an “Approved” request is taken, the operator will “Implement” the request by selecting the “Implement Outage” button at the bottom of the ORF.
- The request will be implemented for the time that
- • A distribution customer outage is effective OR
- • The distribution or substation equipment is switched out of service.
6. When should an implemented Outage Request in CROW be completed?
When an “Implemented” request is returned, the operator will “Complete” the request by selecting the “Complete Outage” button at the bottom of the ORF.
- The request will be completed for the time that
- • A distribution customer is returned to service OR
- • The distribution or station equipment becomes available to the system.
7. What events are logged in the CROW Events Browser?
- The “Event” browser is used in CROW to log:
- • Forced Outage
- • Carried By
- • Unusual Condition
- • Alarm
- • EMS/SCADA
8. What events are logged in CROW as Forced Outages?
- The events logged in CROW as Forced Outages by the Load Operator are:
- • Events involving station equipment within their area of operating responsibility
- • Outage events involving sustained distribution system feeder outages and associated equipment. Momentary feeder outages will not be entered in CROW (1D-10)
- • Events involving Bulk customers that connect to the distribution system
- • Events involving IPP generating units larger than 20MW connected to the distribution system
9. What is the general purpose for logging Forced Outages in CROW?
- The general purpose of logging “Forced Outages” are:
- • To capture availability/unavailability of equipment and circuits
- • To record significant operating reconfigurations that impact reliability
- • To record customer impacts
- • To record SDR data
10. What are Parent and Related Outages?
- The Initiating event is considered a Parent Outage. Outage events that occur as a direct result of another outage event are considered Related Outages.
- • When a series of outages occur, the initiating outage should be entered to generate an Outage Event. All related outages are then entered using the Related Outages tab in the Outage Event Entry for the initial event.
- • Related Outages are normally entered for other circuits that may be impacted as a result of the failure, including transmission lines and feeders, and also equipment such as impacted generation, bulk customers, and critical reactive equipment.
11. Why are Carried Bys logged in CROW?
Carried Bys are logged in crow to provide a means of logging abnormal feeder configurations and a new “Carried By” entry for a feeder will cause any permits (LLP, ANRP, GNR) that have been approved in CROW P3 for that specific feeder to be un-approved. This is a fail-safe feature to ensure that the operator re-evaluates any permits that may have its associated reclosing requirements affected by a new feeder configuration.
12. What is an Unusual Condition?
An unusual condition is “A change from the normal state or condition of equipment, that impacts the operation of the system or system equipment, where it is expected to be returned to its normal state in the near future”.
13. What operating order describes alarm handling and the criteria for entering alarms in CROW?
System Operating Order 1T-38 describes alarm handling and the criteria for entering alarms in CROW.
14. How are AREVA analog alarms that are nuisance or may indicate failure of equipment entered into CROW?
AREVA analog alarms that are nuisance or may indicate failure of equipment are logged in CROW as “EMS/SCADA” events.
15. What is the purpose of the Permit Requests Browser (P3)?
The Permit Requests Browser (P3) is the tool used to log and track all distribution permits (LLP, ANRP, GNR).
16. What is the purpose of the Reclosing Browser?
- The Reclosing Browser displays a list of non-supervisory devices which require their reclosing control switched to the “off” position in order to support permit requests.
- The CROW P3 database has been configured to track reclosing status of all non-supervisory reclosing devices associated with at least one permit for Load Desks 4-10.
- The primary function of the “Reclosing Browser” is to provide a tool that can be used to inform the field of manual reclosing requirements.
17. What areas of the province use the Reclosing Browser?
The Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island (Load Desks 4-10) use the Reclosing Browser.
18. Every night, after the day’s permit requests have been processed, what manual task must be performed by the Load Operator and why?
- Every night, after the day’s permit requests have been processed, the Load Operator will sort through the “Reclosing Browser” and update:
- • Reclosing Off Required
- • Reclosing On Required
The Load Operator will access whether the device’s reclosing is required to be turned “on” or “off” the next day. The operator will select the appropriate box and a “Y” for yes will populate when a box is selected.
1. What operating drawings are produced by DAD for use in the control room?
- DAD is used to produce these types of operating drawings:
- • Distribution Operating Diagram (DOD)
- • Underground Distribution Diagram (UDD)
- • Primary Maps
2. What is the purpose of the “Yellow Sheet Check” performed by the Load Operator?
- The “Yellow Sheet Check” is used:
- • To check that a PA has been correctly updated on DAD and matches the red mark up on the print (UDD or Primary Map)
- • To compare a new print against the current print to make sure the new one is correct