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How do you convert C to K?
K = C + 273
How do you convert F to C?
F= 9/5C + 32
What are the 4 mechanisms of heat loss?
- - conduction (direct contact transfer)
- - radiation (electromagnetic wave transfer)
- - convection (transfer by air currents)
- - evaporation (transfer through humidity)
What is one way to minimize conductive heat loss?
What is one way to minimize evaporative heat loss?
What is pressure? What 2 things contribute to pressure?
- - the force exerted by a collection of atoms or molecules
- - Gravitational influences on the atoms or molecules
- - the energy sources operating within the atoms or molecules
What is the kinetic theory of matter?
the movement of molecules and their atoms is constant but not uniform. Speed (velocity), direction (vectors), and movement (energy) can vary. aka Molecular activity.
What is the atmospheric pressure of gases at sea level?
What is the measurement of cylinder pressure?
pounds-per-square-inch gauge (PSIG)
What is the PSIG of a full e cylinder of oxygen? nitrous oxide?
2200 PSIG, 745 PSIG
What are the 3 Empirical Gas Laws?
Boyle's, Charles', Gay-Lussasc's
What is the down fall of the empirical gas laws?
they do not account for intermolecular forces (friction)
What is Boyle's Law?
- constant: temp
- inversely related: pressure and volume
What is Charles' Law?
- constant: pressure
- directly related: temp and volume
- V1/T1 = V2/T2
What is Gay-Lussac's Law?
- constant: volume
- directly related: pressure and temp
What is the Joule-Thompson Effect?
- "Joule is cool"
- compressed gasses being released into a vacuum, the molecules of gas pull away from one another into the vacuum and lose substantial kinetic energy and speed --> drop in temp
What is the ideal gas law?
- PV = nRT
- (pressure)(volume) = (#molecules)(constant)(temp in K)
What is the general gas law?
P1V1T2 = P2V2T1
What is Graham's Law of diffusion/effusion?
- lighter gases diffuse more rapidly than heavy ones
- Rate of diffusion will vary with the square root of it's molecular weight
- SOOOO if two molecules have a weight of 4 and 16, square roots = 2 and 4 so one is 2x faster than the other
What is Fick's Law of Diffusion?
Diffusion rate = (p1-P2)(area)(solubility)/(membrane thickness)(square root of molecular weight)
What is Henry's Law?
- Re: dissolving gas in a liquid
- increased temp = increased activity = less dissolved in blood
- so febrile patient will require more anesthetic
What is Dalton's law of partial pressure?
- total pressure of mixed gases is the sum of all its individual (partial) pressures
- atmospheric = 760 torr/mmHG
What is the beneficial action of a solution?
helps chemical runs to proceed more quickly
How do you create a supersaturated solution?
by heating a saturated solution and then you'll be able to add more solute
What happens in diffusion?
movement of solute AND solvent across a permeable membrane
What is crenation or plasmolysis?
when plasma draws blood from RBC's in a hypertonic state
What are the 4 types of flow?
Steady, laminar, turbulent, transitional
What is steady flow?
uniform - all molecules traveling the same direction and same velocity
What is laminar flow?
all molecules travel parallel but the center at an increased velocity
Where does laminar flow occur?
only in the smallest airways (bronchioles)
What is turbulent flow?
molecules travel in non-parallel paths which gives rise to eddy's currents
Where does turbulent flow occur? What is it governed by?
medium to large airways - governed by reynolds number
What is transitional flow?
a mixture of laminar and turbulent
Where does transitional flow occur?
at branch points (ex: carina) or points distal to partial obstructions
What is reynolds number?
- tendency for turbulence
What is Pouiseuille's Law?
Q= (pi)(r^4)(change in pressure)/(8)(viscosity)(length)
What is Bernoulli's principle?
Fluid flows faster and with less pressure through the narrowed section of a pipe
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