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What type of radiation is harmful?
- Ionizing radiation.
- Alpha, Beta (particulate), gama, and X-rays (wavelike).
What unit of measure quantifies the amount of exposure to radiation?
Roentgen equivalents man or REM
Sources on Non-Ionizing radiation?
Radio, Micro, infrared, visible light, ultrasound, and MRI.
How are frequency and wavelength related?
How alpha and beta particle are emitted?
Radioactive decaying nucleus emits energy to regain stability.
Describe alpha particle attributes.
- 1.) Loose particles energy quickly.
- 2.) can't penetrate materials - stopped by paper or dead skin.
- 3.) Only hazardous when inhaled or digested. Can penetrate 50 micrometers in pulmonary epithelium.
- 4.) sources - radon gas and americium 241 in smoke detectors.
Beta particles attributes?
- +/- charged
- 1) lighter than alpha, atomic wt near 0.
- 2) thus, longer range - 2cm into tissue.
- 3) stopped by thin plastic, aluminum, or span of air 10-100cm.
- 4.) PET scan and stronium 90 used for eye sx.
1)Electromagnetic wave behave like?
- - sine wave
- - travels speed of light
- - can't bend around corners
- - no mass = very high energy and damage
- - emitted c alpha and gama rays during decay
- - stopped by lead and concrete
Where are Gama rays used?
- - cardiac scans c radiotracer technetium
- - v/q scans using inhaled radiotracer xenon 133
- - thyroid uptake 123.
How are X-rays made? How are they expressed in terms of strength? And, what law does it follow and its implications?
- - made from boiled off cathode
- - milliampere-seconds
- - Beam density is inversely proportion to square of its distance from the source.
- - DISTANCE PROTECTS
X-Ray kVp = what? and what are the clinical implications?
Describes the power of the beam and thus how well it will go through the patient.
Electomagnetic Ionizing radiation with late effect or stochastic exposure responce is NOT dose dependent?
Early or Deterministic dose is related to the dose?
Three types of lasers and there unique characteristics?
- - Monochromatic - one wavelength
- - Coherent - oscillates in same phase - photons move together
- - collimated - narrow parallel beam. can be precisely directed.
Types of lasers that are visible?
What lasers are invisible
- Argon and other tunable dye lasers.
- CO2 and Nd:YAG
What is the greatest risk for injury in relation to lasers?
- Eye injury
- - Corneal burn
- - Retinal burn
- - destruction of macula or optic nerve
- - chataracts
What laser do you only need regular eye glasses to protect?
CO2 laser (invisible). absorbed by plastic and glass
Nd-YAG (invisible) can cause what eye damage?
Retinal need opaque green eye wear or specially coated clear lenses.
KTP and Argon are Invisible or Visible?
What Glasses do you need for both?
- - both are Visible.
- - KTP - Retinal damage - Red filter
- - Argon - Retinal Damage - opaque Orange Goggles
The body regulates pH or H+ THREE ways?
- 1) Buffering systems
- - Bicarbonate buffer
- - Hemaglobin
- - other protein buffer
- - phosphate buffer
- 2) Ventilatory buffer
- 3) Renal buffer