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The practice of assigning a scientific name to organisms that is a Genus and a species
eg: Streptococcus pyogenes
The theory once held that living organisms could be generated spontaneously from decaying matter of inanimate substances
Opposing theory to spontaneous generation that stated -- biological organisms could only derive from living organisms
Germ theory of disease
Microbes are responsible for the transmission of infectious disease of contamination
Pasteur pioneered this theory
Procedures to reduce ocurence of microbial contamination
All organisms are made of cells (and arise from preexisting cells)
EIDs, list some examples
Emerging Infectious diseases- diseases that are new /changing and are increasing (or potential to increase) in near future
Eg west Nile virus, HIV/aids, avian influenza
What is Robert Hooke known for?
- Inventor of microscope
- Coined the term "cell"
What is Louis Pasteur known for?
- Pioneer of Germ theory of disease
- Disproved spontaneous generation theory with the S shaped flask experiment
- Pasteurization (the mild heating of a solution to reduce bacterial contamination in liquids). Discovered this re: wine & vinegar problem
What is Joseph Lister known for?
Using carbolic acid to decontaminate instruments, etc. British surgeon, credited with principles of aseptic technique
What is I. Sammelwisz known for?
Austrian obstetrician who recognized high death rate in Vienna birthing centers
MDs were carrying germs from cadaver dissection room and contaminating their patients
What is Robert Koch known for?
- Peer of Pasteur in Germany.
- Devised specific set of rule or "postulates" that allowed the ID of a specific microbe as cause of an infectious illness
- 1.culture/grow the suspected bacteria from the sick animal
- 2.inject into healthy animal
- 3. Isolate bacteria from the now sick/dead animal
- 4. Compare slides
This is no longer relevant b/c it assumes that one bacteria=one symptom.
What is Edward Jenner known for?
Developed crude (but effective) vaccine against small pox from cow pox scrapings. Lucky that the two are so similar! Not usually like this
What is Alexander Fleming known for?
Accidental discovery of penicillin.
- Recognized that naturally occurring substances from microbes could kill bacteria (microbes were called antibiotics, these microbes are mold).
- Penicillium notatum mold contaminated his petri dishes of bacteria and released antibiotic, lysing nearby bacteria
What is the Three Domain Theory?
- that all organisms are divided in to 3 large groups
- ARCHAEA-- live extreme conditions
What domains are prokaryotic? What is the main distincter of prokaryotes?
Bacteria and Archaea
- Prokaryotes lack a true nucleus
- eurkaryotes have a nucleus
Around what time period did prokaryotes emerge? (estimated) And for eukaryotes?
- Prokaryotes dated 4 billion years ago
- Eukaryotes dated 2 billion years ago
What is the Endosymbiotic Theory?
a model for evolution of eukaryotes: that one prokaryote got pushed into another prokaryote "host"
What is the Hierarchy of classifying organisms
(king phillip came over for great sex)
What is Differential Staining?
- the use of staining that allows viewing of bacterial shape and arrangement.
- Example--- Gram stain
Describe process of Gram Stain
- 1. heat fixed smear is covered with crystal violet (primary stain)
- 2. purple gets washed off, then IODINE (both gram + and gram - are purple at this point)
- 3. wash with ALCOHOL (aka decolorizing agent), which removes purple from certain cells
- 4. stain with SAFARIN, (counterstain) a red dye that will stick to gram -
Color indications of of Gram + and Gram -
Gram + is PURPLE
Gram - is RED/PINK
What is serology?
utilization of antibodies to screen for specific pathogens.
antibodies are made by immune system when a pathogen invades. Antibodies bind to antigens, resulting in complex that will precipitate out of a solution
What is the ELISA method?
- Enyzme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay
- test with series of wells, scanned by a computer. Antibodies are altered so that when reacting with the antigen will cause a color change (usually clear to yellow)
since bacteria can look similar, another way to help identify is the way the metabolize substances. (eg one bacteria eats a certain type of carbohydrate, while a similar looking bacteria perfers another type).
Bacteria first inncoulated with single carb and is RED colored. If bacteria likes this single carb, it'll eat it then produce waste. This waste makes it turn yellow
What is DNA Fingerprinting?
DNA from 2 microorganisms are treated with same restrictive enzyme (can cut a molecule of DNA everywhere a specific base sequence occurs, thus producing a restrictive fragment) these leftover restrictive fragments are separated by Electrophoresis in a gel matrix, thus producing specific DNA patterns
What is the most accurate way to identify and classify organisms? Most accurate to compare and contrast?
Ribosomal RNA sequencing (A C G U) , no mutation occurs here, therefore a better way to classify/compare
List defining characteristics of PROKARYOTE
- 1. no nucleus- large single dumb bell shaped chromosome
- 2. DNA not associated with histones3. Peptidoglycan in cell wall (except archaea, so only Bacteria)
- 4. No membrane bound organelles
- 5. Cellular division--- BINARY Fission
List defining characteristics of EUKARYOTES
- 1. nucleus-- double membrane envelope with pores; nuclear material contained on chromosomal pairs
- 2. chromosomes enveloped with histone believed to be involved in gene expression via acetylation & butyrylation
- 3. NO Peptidoglycan; cell wall varies
- 4. membrane bound organelles
- 5. cellular division--- MITOSIS
Morphology of Prokaryotes
- 1. ribosomes, site of protein synthesis--- 70s
- S= Svedberg units, indicates relative rate of sedimentation during centrifuge. (50, 30)
- 2. Parts: Cytoplasm, ribosomes, plasma membrane, nucleoid (containing DNA)
- 3. Could also have- Flagella, Fimbriae (aka Pili, protein extensions used to grab), a capsule (or slime layer if not organized), cell wall (usually present), plasmids (Xtra bits of DNA), inclusions
what is atrichous?
without flagella (bacteria can lack this)
what are peritichous flagella?
distributed all over the cell.
what is polar flagella?
flagella at one or both ends of the cell
IF POLAR, bacteria could be:
- monotrichous- single flagellum at one pole
- lophotrichous- a tuft of flagella at one pole
- amphitrichous- flagella at both poles of cell
What are Flagellum made of?
List three basic parts of Flagellum?
MADE OF: Flagellin
- filament- out most region
- hook- filament attached to
- basal body- anchors flagellum to cell wall
Shapes of Prokaryotes
- Coccus= spherical
- Bacillus= rod shaped
- Spiral =cork screw
Types of Cocci (OVAL SHAPED)
- diplococci= pairs
- streptococci= chain like
- tetrads= groups of four
- sarcinae= cubelike (groups of 8)
- staphylococci=grape like clusters/broad sheets
Types of Spiral (one or more twists)
- vibrios= curved rods
- spirilla= helical shape, cork screw- RIDGID
- spirochetes=helical shape,cork screw-FLEXIBLE
Types of Bacilli (ROD SHAPED)
- streptobacilli= chains
- coccobacilli=oval, spherical
Prokaryotes have what types of shell?
- 1. Slimey cover- not organized, sugar coat AKA GLYCOCALYX
- 2. Capsule- sugar coat (glycocalyx) organized and firmly attached to cell wall
Cytoplasm of Prokaryotes consists of how much water? What do they lack? (hint eukaryotes have it)
85-95% They Lack CYTOSKELETONS
Morphology of Eukaryotes
- 1. ribosomes, site of protein synthesis---80s, S= Svedberg units which indicate relative rate of sedimentation (60, 40)
- 2. Parts: nucleus (with nuclear envelope), membrane bound organelles, flagella, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm (WITH Cytoskeleton),
- 3. Examples of organelles: ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (network of tubules), Golgi system (secrets), mitochondria (power)
What is the cytoskeleton of made of?
Rods (microfilaments) & cylinders (microtubules)
- Microfilaments= polymer of ACTIN
- Microtubules= polymer of TUBULIN
Eukaryotes have what two things for mobility? What are the flagellum made of?
- Flagella- if projections are few and long
- Cilia- if projections are numerous and short
Made of microtubules in a 9 + 2 array. (microtubules are made of protein called tubulin)
What is the difference between prokaryote and eukaryotes flagellum?
- Prokaryote- flagellum rotates
- Eukaryote- wavelike manner
What is in a Eurkaryote's cell wall?
NOT PEPTIDOGLYCAN. cell wall varies depending on organism. sometimes they just have a plasma membrane
How do substances enter the cell?
- diffusion, faciliated diffusion, osmosis, or active transport.
- * Eukaryotes can do an extra method called ENDOCYTOSIS (when part of plasma membrane surrunds an object, encloses it, and brings into cell)
Do prokaryotes and eukaryotes have the same kind of plasma membranes?
No. Eukaryotes typically have sterols and carbohydrates in addition to the lipid bilayer
overall concentration of solutes equals what's inside a cell
Hypotonic Solution, what's the result?
cell wall BURSTS
(Water is moving into the cell)
cell wall SHRINKS
(Water is moving out of the cell)