Microbio - Exam 1

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Microbio - Exam 1
2014-06-16 15:14:20

Microbio, intro
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  1. Binominal nomenclature
    The practice of assigning a scientific name to organisms that is a Genus and a species

    eg: Streptococcus pyogenes
  2. Spontaneous generation
    The theory once held that living organisms could be generated spontaneously from decaying matter of inanimate substances
  3. Biogenesis
    Opposing theory to spontaneous generation that stated -- biological organisms could only derive from living organisms
  4. Germ theory of disease
    Microbes are responsible for the transmission of infectious disease of contamination

    Pasteur pioneered this theory
  5. Aseptic technique
    Procedures to reduce ocurence of microbial contamination
  6. Cell theory
    All organisms are made of cells (and arise from preexisting cells)
  7. EIDs, list some examples
    Emerging Infectious diseases- diseases that are new /changing and are increasing (or potential to increase) in near future

    Eg west Nile virus, HIV/aids, avian influenza
  8. What is Robert Hooke known for?
    • Inventor of microscope
    • Coined the term "cell"
  9. What is Louis Pasteur known for?
    • Pioneer of Germ theory of disease
    • Disproved spontaneous generation theory with the S shaped flask experiment
    • Pasteurization (the mild heating of a solution to reduce bacterial contamination in liquids). Discovered this re: wine & vinegar problem
  10. What is Joseph Lister known for?
    Using carbolic acid to decontaminate instruments, etc.  British surgeon, credited with principles of aseptic technique
  11. What is I. Sammelwisz known for?
    Austrian obstetrician who recognized high death rate in Vienna birthing centers

    MDs were carrying germs from cadaver dissection room and contaminating their patients
  12. What is Robert Koch known for?
    • Peer of Pasteur in Germany.
    • Devised specific set of rule or "postulates" that allowed the ID of a specific microbe as cause of an infectious illness

    • 1.culture/grow the suspected bacteria from the sick animal
    • 2.inject into healthy animal
    • 3. Isolate bacteria from the now sick/dead animal
    • 4. Compare slides

    This is no longer relevant b/c it assumes that one bacteria=one symptom.
  13. What is Edward Jenner known for?
    Developed crude (but effective) vaccine against small pox from cow pox scrapings.   Lucky that the two are so similar!  Not usually like this
  14. What is Alexander Fleming known for?
    Accidental discovery of penicillin.

    • Recognized that naturally occurring substances from microbes could kill bacteria (microbes were called antibiotics, these microbes are mold).
    • Penicillium notatum mold contaminated his petri dishes of bacteria and released antibiotic, lysing nearby bacteria
  15. What is the Three Domain Theory?
    • that all organisms are divided in to 3 large groups
    • ARCHAEA-- live extreme conditions
  16. What domains are prokaryotic?  What is the main distincter of prokaryotes?
    Bacteria and Archaea

    • Prokaryotes lack a true nucleus
    • eurkaryotes have a nucleus
  17. Around what time period did prokaryotes emerge? (estimated)   And for eukaryotes?
    • Prokaryotes dated 4 billion years ago
    • Eukaryotes dated 2 billion years ago
  18. What is the Endosymbiotic  Theory?
    a model for evolution of eukaryotes: that one prokaryote got pushed into another prokaryote "host"
  19. What is the Hierarchy of classifying organisms
    (king phillip came over for great sex)
    • DOMAIN
    • PHYLUM
    • CLASS
    • ORDER
    • FAMILY
    • GENUS
  20. What is Differential Staining?
    • the use of staining that allows viewing of bacterial shape and arrangement.
    • Example--- Gram stain
  21. Describe process of Gram Stain
    • 1.  heat fixed smear is covered with crystal violet (primary stain)
    • 2.  purple gets washed off, then IODINE (both gram + and gram - are purple at this point)
    • 3. wash with ALCOHOL (aka decolorizing agent), which removes purple from certain cells
    • 4.  stain with SAFARIN, (counterstain) a red dye that will stick to gram -
  22. Color indications of of Gram + and Gram -
    Gram +  is PURPLE

    Gram - is RED/PINK
  23. What is serology?
    utilization of antibodies to screen for specific pathogens.

    antibodies are made by immune system when a pathogen invades.  Antibodies bind to antigens, resulting in complex that will precipitate out of a solution
  24. What is the ELISA method?
    • Enyzme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay
    • test with series of wells, scanned by a computer.  Antibodies are altered so that when reacting with the antigen will cause a color change (usually clear to yellow)
  25. Metabolic Media?
    since bacteria can look similar, another way to help identify is the way the metabolize substances.  (eg one bacteria eats a certain type of carbohydrate, while a similar looking bacteria perfers another type).

    Bacteria first inncoulated with single carb and is RED colored.  If bacteria likes this single carb, it'll eat it then  produce waste.  This waste makes it turn yellow
  26. What is DNA Fingerprinting?
    DNA from 2 microorganisms are treated with same restrictive enzyme (can cut a molecule of DNA everywhere a specific base sequence occurs, thus producing a restrictive fragment)  these leftover restrictive fragments are separated by Electrophoresis in a gel matrix, thus producing specific DNA patterns
  27. What is the most accurate way to identify and classify organisms?  Most accurate to compare and contrast?
    Ribosomal RNA sequencing  (A C G U)  , no mutation occurs here, therefore a better way to classify/compare
  28. List defining characteristics of PROKARYOTE
    • 1. no nucleus- large single dumb bell shaped chromosome
    • 2. DNA not associated with histones
    • 3. Peptidoglycan in cell wall (except archaea, so only Bacteria)
    • 4. No membrane bound organelles
    • 5. Cellular division--- BINARY Fission
  29. List defining characteristics of EUKARYOTES
    • 1. nucleus-- double membrane envelope with pores; nuclear material contained on chromosomal pairs
    • 2.  chromosomes enveloped with histone believed to be involved in gene expression via acetylation & butyrylation
    • 3.  NO Peptidoglycan; cell wall varies
    • 4.  membrane bound organelles
    • 5. cellular division--- MITOSIS
  30. Morphology of Prokaryotes
    • 1. ribosomes, site of protein synthesis--- 70s
    • S= Svedberg units, indicates relative rate of sedimentation during centrifuge.  (50, 30)
    • 2. Parts: Cytoplasm, ribosomes, plasma membrane, nucleoid (containing DNA)
    • 3. Could also have- Flagella, Fimbriae (aka Pili, protein extensions used to grab), a capsule (or slime layer if not organized), cell wall (usually present), plasmids (Xtra bits of DNA), inclusions
  31. Prokaryotes Flagellum:
    what is atrichous?
    without flagella (bacteria can lack this)
  32. Prokaryotes Flagellum:
    what are peritichous flagella?
    distributed all over the cell.
  33. Prokaryotes Flagellum:
    what is polar flagella?
    flagella at one or both ends of the cell
  34. IF POLAR, bacteria could be:
    • monotrichous- single flagellum at one pole
    • lophotrichous- a tuft of flagella at one pole
    • amphitrichous- flagella at both poles of cell
  35. What are Flagellum made of?
    List three basic parts of Flagellum?
    MADE OF: Flagellin

    • filament- out most region
    • hook- filament attached to
    • basal body- anchors flagellum to cell wall
  36. Shapes of Prokaryotes
    • Coccus= spherical
    • Bacillus= rod shaped
    • Spiral =cork screw
  37. Types of Cocci (OVAL SHAPED)
    • diplococci= pairs
    • streptococci= chain like
    • tetrads= groups of four
    • sarcinae= cubelike (groups of 8)
    • staphylococci=grape like clusters/broad sheets
  38. Types of Spiral (one or more twists)
    • vibrios= curved rods
    • spirilla= helical shape, cork screw- RIDGID
    • spirochetes=helical shape,cork screw-FLEXIBLE
  39. Types of Bacilli (ROD SHAPED)
    • Diplobacilli=pairs
    • streptobacilli= chains
    • coccobacilli=oval, spherical
  40. Prokaryotes have what types of shell?
    • 1. Slimey cover- not organized, sugar coat AKA GLYCOCALYX
    • 2. Capsule- sugar coat (glycocalyx) organized and firmly attached to cell wall
  41. Cytoplasm of Prokaryotes consists of how much water?  What do they lack? (hint eukaryotes have it)
    85-95%   They Lack CYTOSKELETONS
  42. Morphology of Eukaryotes
    • 1. ribosomes, site of protein synthesis---80s, S= Svedberg units which indicate relative rate of sedimentation (60, 40)
    • 2. Parts: nucleus (with nuclear envelope), membrane bound organelles, flagella, cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm (WITH Cytoskeleton), 
    • 3. Examples of organelles: ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (network of tubules), Golgi system (secrets), mitochondria (power)
  43. What is the cytoskeleton of made of?
    Rods (microfilaments) & cylinders (microtubules)

    • Microfilaments= polymer of ACTIN
    • Microtubules= polymer of TUBULIN
  44. Eukaryotes have what two things for mobility?  What are the flagellum made of?
    • Flagella- if projections are few and long 
    • Cilia- if projections are numerous and short

    Made of microtubules in a 9 + 2 array.  (microtubules are made of protein called tubulin)
  45. What is the difference between prokaryote and eukaryotes flagellum?
    • Prokaryote- flagellum rotates
    • Eukaryote- wavelike manner
  46. What is in a Eurkaryote's cell wall?
    NOT PEPTIDOGLYCAN.  cell wall varies depending on organism.  sometimes they just have a plasma membrane
  47. How do substances enter the cell?
    • diffusion, faciliated diffusion, osmosis, or active transport.
    • * Eukaryotes can do an extra method called ENDOCYTOSIS (when part of plasma membrane surrunds an object, encloses it, and brings into cell)
  48. Do prokaryotes and eukaryotes have the same kind of plasma membranes?
    No.  Eukaryotes typically have sterols and carbohydrates in addition to the lipid bilayer
  49. Isotonic solution
    overall concentration of solutes equals what's inside a cell
  50. Hypotonic Solution, what's the result?
    cell wall BURSTS

    (Water is moving into the cell)
  51. Hypertonic Solution
    cell wall SHRINKS

    (Water is moving out of the cell)