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Prince Henry the Navigator
- Son of the Portuguese king. Henry was the most influential advocate for exploration.
- Collected all the latest information about sailing techniques and geography.
- Responsible for the invention of the Caravall.
Treaty of Tordesillias
- Treaty held between Spain and Portugal.
- An imaginary line cutting vertically the globe claiming that everything WEST of the lines belongs to Spain. Leaving only Brazil to the Portuguese.
- First navigator to sail around the world.
The Colombian Exchange
Transatlantic trade of Goods, People and ideas.
Spanish conquistador and explorer. He led expeditions to the mainland where he conquered Montezuma and the Aztec Empire.
The leader of the Aztecs at the time of Cortes' Invasion.
- Legal system was created by the Spanish to control and regulate American Indian labor and behavior during the colonization of the Americas.
- (encomenderos) received grants of a number of Indians, from whom they could exact “tribute” in the form of gold or labor.
The encomenderos were supposed to protect and Christianize the Indians granted to them, but they most often used the system to effectively enslave the Indians and take their lands.
Spanish born Spaniards residing in the new world.
- Major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Began with Martin Luther publicizing his criticism: "Justification by Faith".
- The doctrine of Swiss John Calvin. Calvin insisted the Christians strict discipline their behavior to conform to God's commandments announced in the Bible.
- Similar to the Puritans, Calvin believed in Predestination.
- In 1618, the headright system was introduced as a means to solve the labor shortage.
- Colonists already residing in Virginia were granted two headrights, meaning two tracts of 50 acres each, or a total of 100 acres of land.
- New settlers who paid their own passage to Virginia were granted one headright. Since every person who entered the colony received a headright, families were encouraged to migrate together.
Wealthy individuals could accumulate headrights by paying for the passage of poor individuals. Most of the workers who entered Virginia under this arrangement came as indentured servants — people who paid for their transportation by pledging to perform five to seven years of labor for the landowner.
The implementation of the headright system was an important ingredient in Virginia’s success. Land ownership gave many people a reason to work hard, with the assurance that they were providing for their own futures, not that of the company
people who paid for their transportation by pledging to perform five to seven years of labor for the landowner.
Navigation Acts of 1650 and 1951
- English ruling that specified that colonial goods had to be transported in English ships with predominantly English crew.
- And that all good send to the colonies must pass through English ports, carried by English ships and manned by English Sailors.
Economic theory and practice common in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century that promoted governmental regulation of a nation’s economy for the purpose of augmenting state power at the expense of rival national powers.
Dispute that erupted over Virginia's Indian Policy and the Elite colonial rulers in Jamestown.
- The Great Awakening was a series of religious revivals in the North American British colonies during the 17th and 18th Centuries.
- During these "awakenings" a great many colonists found new meaning (and new comfort) in the religions of the day.
Also, a handful of preachers made names for themselves like Jonathan Edwards.
Seven Years War
The French and Indian War, a colonial extension of the Seven Years War that ravaged Europe from 1756 to 1763, was the bloodiest American war in the 18th century. The war involved people on three continents, including the Caribbean (West Indies). The war was the product of an imperial struggle, a clash between the French and English and Spanish over colonial territory and wealth.
Proclamation of 1763
- British Government issued law forbidding colonists to settle west of the Appalachian Mountain.
- limiting trade with the Indians to licensed traders by the colonial governors.
- Forbidding private sales.
Sugar and Stamp Act
- revenue generating acts enforced by Grenville. Current minister of coin of Britain.
- Sugar act:
- 1764 Act that put a three-cent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine.
- It banned importation of rum and French wines.
- These taxes affected only a certain part of the population, but the affected merchants were very vocal.
- The taxes were enacted (or raised) without the consent of the colonists.
- This was one of the first instances in which colonists wanted a say in how much they were taxed.
- Stamp act:
- The Stamp Act was the first act where the colonists were directly taxed, and this infuriated the Americans of course. The Stamp Act basically said that all documents, papers, etc. of the sort must have a stamp on it to be legal.
The Townshend Acts of 1767 were a series of laws which set new import taxes on British goods including paint, paper, lead, glass and tea.
Used revenues to maintain British troops in America.
Pay the salaries of some Royal officials who were appointed to work in the American colonies.
Boston Tea Party
Governor Thomas Hutchinson resolved to uphold the law of the Tea Act and ordered that three ships arriving in Boston Harbor be allowed to deposit their cargoes and that appropriate payment be made for the goods.
some members of the Sons of Liberty boarded the ships on the night of December 16, 1773 (disguised as Native Americans) and dumped the tea chests into the water.
The dumping of the tea in the harbor was the most destructive act that the colonists had taken against Britain thus far.
For laws meant to punish Massachusetts for destroying the tea:
1. Boston Port act: Port of boston will be closed until the tea is payed foe.
2. Massachusetts Government Act: Local government was dissolved and the new governor will be appointed by the British parliament. Also the new governor appoints all executive and judicial officials. Every agenda item must be pre-approved by the British.
3. Impartial Administration of Justice: Any royal official accused of a crime, will be judged in British Court.
4.The Quartering Act: permitted military commanders to lodge soldiers wherever that is necessary.
Second Continental Congress
- Assembled in Philadelphia.
- Set in motion the rise of an army (the continental Army) and supply in order to explore the possibility of a war with Britain.
- Drafted the Olive Branch Petition (which was denied by King George the III)
- Declared Independence from the England.
Declaration of Indepensence
The Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson and adopted by the Second Continental Congress, states the reasons the British colonies of North America sought independence in July of 1776.
Battle of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga were a series of battles that culminated in the Battle of Saratoga and the surrender of British General John Burgoyne. This decisive victory by the Americans was a turning point of the Revolutionary War.
Victory convinced France to join the war against the British.
Battle of Yorktown
- The Battle of Yorktown was the last great battle of the American Revolutionary War. It is where the British Army surrendered and the British government began to consider a peace treaty.
- Around 8,000 British troops surrendered in Yorktown. Although this wasn't all of the army, it was a big enough force to cause the British to start thinking they were going to lose the war. Losing this battle made them start to think about peace and that it wasn't worth the cost of the war to keep the colonies. This opened the door for the Treaty of Paris.
- A farmer from western Massachusetts and a former captain in the Continental Army, Daniel Shays staged a protest and led a rebellion against what he perceived to be unfair taxation and debt repayment legislation.
- IOU's issued to army with depreciative value.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- Established a three stage process for admitting New Northwest territories to the Union as states.
- At first, sparse population will be govern by cogress appointed officials.
After establiush population of 5,000 terrirory will be allowed to elect it's own officials and send non-voting delegates to Congress.
When population reaches 60,000 - state will allowed to write an independent constitution and apply for a full admission to the union.
Also known as Toris. Mainly Elite class whom had strong cultural and economical connection to England. During the Revolutionary way they remind faithful to the crown and suffered for it.