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Land settled with the purpose of farming and eventually owning it.
(1871-1921) a series of 11 treaties negotiated between First Nations and the federal government.
Government taxes placed on important goods; generally used to protect domestic industries from foreign competition.
The growth of cities.
A technological and economic shift in a society in which manufacturing and mass production became a significant part of the economy; usually accompanied by increasing urbanization.
Improvements, adaptations, or changes to existing conditions.
Businesses that are jointly owned and operated by members.
Organizations formed by workers to advance their shared interests in the workplace, such as better wages and safer working conditions.
The banning of the sale and consumption of alcohol.
Moderate or no consumption of alcohol.
The right to vote.
The compulsory enlistment of civilians into the armed forces.
Identify 5 characteristics of pre-industrial society. (5)
- Population was largely rural
- Most merchants dealt in trade
- Most industry involved only a few people (except shipbuilding)
- Most people were self-employed
- Wage earners were not recognized as a distinct group
Identify the tasks of N.W.M.P. (5)
- Protected First Nations from further American attacks and gain their confidence
- Assist in treaty negotiations
- Shut down the illegal outposts set up by American whiskey traders
- Patrol the border
- Maintain law and order throughout the vast North-West Territories
Identify 4 ways Prime Minister Macdonald expected the railway to transform Canada. (4)
- Creating employment
- Facilitating trade between the eastern and western regions
- Transporting immigrant settlers across the West
- Uniting the country from sea to sea with a shared identity
What push factors motivated many Ukrainians to emigrate? (3)
- High taxes
- Many citizens lived as indentured workers (enslaved to landowners)
- Military service was compulsory for young men
What push factors motivated many Jewish people to emigrate? (1)
What was the social and cultural impact of this period of immigration? (5)
- Canada becomes more multiethnic and multicultural
- Led to the creation of towns that reflected the heritage of its settlers (ex. Winkler)
- Politcal and cultural views became more diverse
- The expectation from the dominant English speaking Protestants was that the newcomers would assimilate
- Led to the formation of many institutions such as school and newspapers along ethnic ties
Identify 4 changes that occur on the farms of this period. (4)
- Crops were ready to move quickly over great distances
- Machines made industries such as dairying possible
- Improvements in transportation made farm life less isolated
- Farm life became easier (ex. iron stoves, coal lamps)
What were the conditions of the business elite in Canada's early industrial cities. (2)
- Lived in large mansions with expansive gardens, stables and greenhouses
- Their homes were on large lots on broad streets with parks and were serviced by electric street cars and gas lights.
What were the conditions of the working class in Canada's early industrial cities? (2)
- Lived in small houses, in crowded conditions on small lots, without services
- Had to work under harsh conditions such as with poor heating and ventilation
Why were the harsh conditions of the working class allowed to exist? (5)
- Society valued the results of industry and the industrialists
- There was an abundance of cheap labour
- Much of the labour force was immigrants
- There was no united force of labour
- It was the era of lasissez-faier capitalism (there was little government involvement and few regulations)
Identify 5 ways in which the Winnipeg General Strike was historically significant. (5)
- With 27,000 workers off the job virtually all city government services were interrupted
- It was met with a hard line resistance from Winnipeg's business elite
- It received international attention as newspapers spread fears of violent communist revolution
- The strike spread to other communities which led to a response from the federal government
- Some workers became more politically radical