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An intermediate work product that needs to be only good enough to help the agile project team move forward.
Cooperative Game Goals
Delivering the software and creating an advantageous position for the next game
Weick's Principle of Small Wins
Delivering running, tested, useful code at regular intervals is a motivating reward for the project team
A display of project-related information in a place where passerby can see it.
Placing the project team in close proximity (i.e. in the same room) to facilitate communication
A "unit" of agile measure that captures the cost in both labor and time to get a project-related question answered.
The project leader gets the team to make small changes that they do not mind and which causes the team to become more aligned in the same direction.
Test-driven Development (TDD)
The test, or executable example, is written before deciding how to design the code.
Daily Stand-up Meeting
Each day, the team meets face-to-face for a maximum of fifteen minutes to update each other on their status and on any obstacles that are slowing them down.
An obstacle or impediment that slows down team members during an iteration.
A scrum team member who ensures the process is understood and followed, shields the team from outside interference, and removes roadblocks for the team.
Venture-capital Financing Model
The sponsor provides a round of financing for a certain amount work, and the contracted company must produce results in order to get more funding.
An XP technique where the sponsors write story cards for new features, the developers estimate the time it will take, and the customers prioritize the stories.
An index card-bases planning session in which the sponsor, business expert, expert user, and developers together build the project map and timeline, including tasks and dependencies.
A prioritized list (of feature or tasks) of all the tings the scrum team needs to do.
A prioritized, detailed task list for the current sprint that the team promises to deliver to the sponsors at the end of the sprint.
Team Reflection Workshop
A periodic work pause to reflect on the product, progress, and process.
A time-based graph of features to be completed over time and features completed so far.
A Crystal technique in which there is a tiny implementation of the system that performs a small end-to-end function linking the main architectural components.
A Crystal technique where a pre-project safety check is performed.
A high-level, valuable business or product function that typically is broken down into smaller stories for inclusion in a sprint.
A number series (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55) when the next number is derived by adding the previous two; used by scrum teams during "planning poker" to provide value point estimates for stories.
The agile practice of looking ahead to learn the unknown and to reduce uncertainty.
Setting a fixed time limit to overall development efforts while letting other elements (e.g. scope) vary.
A continuous improvement approach which has periodic releasable timeframes and which does not require strict iteration lengths for all stories.
Allowing requirement or design issues to arise and then building them into the product.
Constantly improving a product's internal design (e.g. rewriting code) without changing its behavior to make the product more reliable and adaptable.
Documentation necessary to appease external bodies (e.g., regulatory agencies) but which has little value in communicating customer value to the agile development team.
Taking large projects and breaking them down into smaller pieces that reduce risk and add customer value sooner.
A meeting where the team gathers after completing an increment of work to inspect and adapt their methods and teamwork.
The agile team's empowerment to make decisions to get work done and to strive continuously to "find the limit"
Satisfy the Customer
According to the Agile Manifesto, the highest priority that drives agile team.
Considered the least disciplined of agile methodologies.
A period, usually two to four weeks, in which the agile team codes and tests one or more small features resulting in potentially releasable software.
The amount an investor has today to generate a known amount in the future.
The Three Brainstorming Activities that May be Performed During Agile Retrospectives
- Silent individual generation of ideas
Project Data Sheet (PDS)
A single page summary of key project management information, product capabilities, and business and quality objectives, the PDS is the minimum documentation for an agile project's objectives.
Trade-off (or Flexibility) Matrix
A grid which shows the relative importance of project constraints (i.e. scope, schedule, cost, quality) in terms of Fixed, Firm, or Flexible; only one constraint may be Fixed.
A product component that provides some valuable functionality for the customer, typically accomplished in one or more agile stores.
A plan that defines the features the team will build in advance, but where the release date is uncertain.
A plan the defines the release date in advance, but where the specific features that the release will include are negotiable.
On an XP team, the "Batman" deals with organizational emergencies and support requests so the other programmes can focus on programming.
Stories that are written from the on-site customer's point of view, and provide something that the customer cares about.
A story used to solve a difficult technical problem or to learn enough to posit another solution that will solve it.
The number of story points a team can complete in an iteration.
A list of the project's unique risks, particularly when using XP practices
In XP risk management, triggers that tell you when the risk has materialized.
The time it takes to move from one activity to another during agile retrospectives.
Performance Measure Baseline (PMB)
PMB is the total number of story points planned for a release.
Planned Percent Complete (PPC)
PCC is the number of the current sprint (n) divided by the total number of planned sprints (T), or n/T
The amount of time required to earn back an initial investment of cash
Threshold (or Must-Have) Features
Features that must be present in the product for it to be successful.
Exciters and Delighters
Features that provide great customer satisfaction, often adding a price premium to a product
An estimate (or forecast) of team velocity when it is either impossible or impractical for the team to run an iteration, and they do not yet have any historical observations.
The Three Ways of Estimating Velocity
- Use historical values
- Run an iteration
- Forecast velocity
Examines the effectiveness of risk responses and is conducted as part of the retrospective meeting
A hardening iteration where the agile team prepares for the final rollout of a project
An iteration used to prepare the formal documentation and other deliverables that production requires, including attending final approval meetings
A master storage area for all the team's file and their history; typical of XP projects
The local development area for each team member, it contains a copy of all the files in the team repository from a recent snapshot in time.
The practice of confirming that the build and test succeed before moving on the the next task
Collective Code Ownership
Everyone on the team shares responsibility for the quality of the code, allowing anyone to make necessary changes anywhere.
A 15 minute daily meeting where all participants specifically describes what they did yesterday what they plan to do today, and what problems are preventing them from making progress
An XP team leader who helps the tam reach its potential and encourages discipline in XP practices
Assignment of people to multiple projects simultaneously, a practice not recommend when using most agile methodologies
The total amount of imperfect design and implementation decisions in the project
A self-contained element of a project that typically corresponds to an individual feature and represents one to two days of work
A project where the team is creating a new codebase from scratch; the preferred method of implementing XP for the first time in an organization.
An XP practice where two programmers are paired at a keyboard, with one person (the driver) coding and the other person (the navigator) thinking
A practice where an XP team gathers at a whiteboard to silently arrange annotated index cards; often performed at iteration retrospectives
A part of active listening, acknowing that people's feelings of loss of frustration are valid
Force Field Analysis
A retrospective activity where the team first defines a state they want to achieve and then breaks into groups to identify factors that may either restrain or drive the desired change
- The acronym "INVEST" represents the qualities of a good user story:
Fixed, Firm, Flexible
In a tradeoff matrix, agile project constraints are categorized as Fixed, Firm, or Flexible, with only one constraint (i.e., time, scope, or cost) being Fixed
Abnormally Terminated Sprint
A scrum iteration that is discontinued, either because the team cannot meet the sprint goal or because organizational priorities change
An agile state of being when the code is complete, tested, and bug free and can be released to the customer
A sprint in the last release of a project that allows the scrum team to address some final finishing features
A project leader or facilitator who makes his highest priority that of serving the needs of the team
Supporting the team's self-organization and enhancing their ability to deliver real business value to the customer
- The acronym "CRACK" describes an effective agile product owner:
- When performing a BART analysis, agile coaches focus on the impact of four dimensions on team dynamics:
A non-leading, open-ended question ("What did you notice during the stand-up meeting this morning?") that gives team members the opportunity to provide thoughtful response
Minimum Markable Features (MMF)
The smallest amount of functionality that makes sense to deliver to market
Optimizing the Whole
A Lean principle that emphasizes continuous improvement by addressing whole entities or processes rather than individual problems or symptoms
An organizational approach of selecting the most important products to create and enhance
In Lean thinking, working software in the most valuable indicator of project status
A variation of scrum, which is an enhancement that results from embedding scrum with Lean thinking
A planning iteration used for accomplishing technical setup, establishing agile methods and roles, and creating a product vision
Organic Risk Management
Risk management resulting inherently from using agile practices such as release planning, short iterations, and the daily stand-up meeting, where obstacles are addressed daily
Overt Risk Management
Specific risk management strategies employed to identify, track, and mitigate project risk, such as constructing and maintaining a risk board
A list of capabilities, features, and stores that the product team has identified for use both in both release and iteration planning
Predictive Release Planning
A release planning method in which the entire plan is created in advance and which tends to work best in environments that are low in flux
The level of adherence (on a high/low continuum) to the agile methodology's prescribed structure and processes
The level of change (on a high/low continuum) that is occurring with the project requirements or code
Responsibility, Respect, Fairness, and Honesty
The four hallmarks of the PMP Code of Ethics and Professional Responsibility; adhering to them builds trust
Taking ownership of one's decisions, actions, and related outcomes; one of the four hallmarks of the PMP Code or Ethics and Professional Responsibility
"Caves and Commons" Area
The team is located in a "commons" area to foster osmotic communication but members may retreat to a private "caves" area when they need quiet or personal space
Certified Scrum Master (CSM)
One of the most widely recognized agile certifications; the CSM is issued by the Scrum Alliance
An iteration; the term sprint is specific to the scrum world
Decisions are made at the right time; synonymous with "last responsible moment"
The agile practice of delivering increments of the solution early and often
In scrum, the "voice of the customer" representing stakeholders and the business, who sets the priorities of the deliverables
Agile Manifesto Values
- Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools
- Working Software over Comprehensive Documentation
- Customer Collaboration over Contract Negotiation
- Responding to Change over Following a Plan
Allowing agile teams to work at a pace that can be sustained for the long term; this practice avoids team burnout and improves quality and team morale
Ideal Scrum Team Size
5 to 9 members (i.e., 7 + or - 2)
- Deliverables or work products resulting from the agile process. Examples include:
- Vision statement
- Flexibility matrix
- Product backlog
- User stories
- Team agreements
A brief, structured product vision statement that gives the team the ability to explain the project concisely to someone "in an elevator"
"Pigs and Chickens"
"Pigs" are the scrum team, who are committed to success; all others with a vested interest but who do not participate are "chickens"
An agile team focused solely on new development and not supporting existing operations; often used on pilot projects or when on boarding agile methods
A sprint (iteration) where a significant part is reserved for non-development work (e.g., defect repair, unplanned items, etc.)
Defect Repair Sprint
A sprint (iteration) devoted exclusively to fixing product defects (e.g., software bugs)
4 Types of Resistors to Agile Onboarding
- Diehards (Passive; Like Status Quo)
- Followers (Active; Like Status Quo)
- Saboteurs (Passive; Don't Like Agile)
- Skeptics (Active; Don't Like Agile)
Extreme Programming (XP) Quality
All checked-in code must pass unit tests at 100% at all times
Software Development is What Type of Game?
Goal-seeking and cooperative
3 Levels of Agile Planning
- Release planning
- Iteration planning
- Daily planning
Features that Should be Developed First
High-value, high-risk features deliver the most value and eliminates risks
Structure of an Agile Retrospective
- The structure of an agile retrospective is:
- Setting the stage
- Gathering data
- Generating insights
- Deciding what to do
The Most Efficient and Effective Method of Communication for Agile Teams
Face-to-face (F2F) conversation
Revenue an organization will lose if the project or theme is not developed
Additional revenue that may be obtained from existing customers
The process of moving future amounts back into their present value
The team commits delivering specified functionality and the business commits to not charging priorities during the sprint
When May an Agile Team Intitate a "Code Freeze?"
Only during an ongoing iteration, to prevent unapproved scope changes
Fist of Five
"Fist of five" is an agile consensus-building activity; during team votes showing more fingers (1 to 5) demonstrates increased agreement with the question posed, with five fingers meaning, "Strongly agree"
Agile Advocates Working on How Many Projects at a Time?
One, which improves focus and team productivity
In Lean, a visual tool (e.g., Kanban signal card) for controlling an activity or process
Per Lean Principles, What are the Two Biggest Wastes in Software Development?
- Building what is not needed
Agile Coaching Occurs at These Two Levels
The Japanses Concept "Shu Ha Ri," Which is Used as a Model for Mastering Agile, Means
- Follow the rule
- Break the rule
- Be the rule
Linear features are so named because customer satisfaction is correlated linearly with the quantity of the feature
When Should a User Stroy be Split?
When the user story is too big to fit within a single iteration
The process of creating a very high-level plan that covers a periods longer than an iteration
One that must be released by a certain date but for which the feature set is negotiable
Iteration Review Meeting
Meeting where new functionality and capabilities that were added during the iteration are demonstrated to stakeholders
Velocity-driven Iteration Planning
The team estimates how many story points should be planned into the current iteration base on its actual velocity during recent iterations
The amount of time per day that a team would spend on a project if working full speed without any interruptions, vacations, or other competition for their time
A margin for error around an estimate, used where there is significant uncertianty
Two Types of Buffers
- Features buffers
- Schedule buffers
Contract stipulations where the customer may cancel if the agile seller fails to deliver and the agile seller may cancel if the customer does not provide input and priorities
The Three Phases of Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
- Project Lifecycle
In Crystal, What are the Name Color Schemes?
In Crystal, What do the Color Schemes Represent?
Going from lighter (Clear) to darker (Maroon) indicates increased "heaviness" in terms of the number of people involved, criticality, and project-level priorities
Seven Principles of Lean
- Elminating waste
- Amplifying learning
- Deciding as late as possible
- Delivering as fast as possible
- Empowering the team
- Building integrity in
- Seeing the whole
Open Space Meeting
A self-organized meeting where the participants set the topic and agenda, typically to solve a problem
Inputs to Agile Release Planning
- Prioritized, estimated product backlog
- Velocity measurement (or estimate)
- Product vision
The Main Output of Agile Release Planning
Name Two Exercises for Refining the Product Vision
- Design the box that would carry the product
- Write an elevator statment
Team Working Agreements
Standards that the agile team defines for how it will work
A consensus-based game that employs the Delphi method; team members individually estimate user stories through use of numbered cards, followed by discussion, until consensus is achieved
Measurable terms defining how a user story can satisfy customer expectations
Identify the 3 Essentail Roles for Any Scrum Project
- Product Owner
- Scrum Master
The fear of moving forward until the project's agile models are perfect