History 30s - Post Confederation Life Part II
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What was the goal of the Numbered Treaties? (1)
The goal of the Numbered Treaties was to persuade the First Nations to give their Aboriginal title to the land and move onto permanent reserves. The land would then be sold or given to newcomers.
What problems resulted from the Numbered Treaties? (2)
The reserve lands tended to be poor for agriculture and in isolated locations, so inhabitants had difficulty establishing an economic base for their community. First Nations lives underwent fundamental changes and many treaties remained unsettled.
What were the goals of Macdonald's National Policy in 1878? (3)
The goals of the National Policy were to encourage nation wide economic growth and trade, to create communication and transportation links across the country, and to protect the West from annexation by the United States.
Describe the immigration experience of the Mennonites. (3)
German speaking Mennonites from Russia came to Canada because they refused to face conscription into the Russian army. The Canadian government made an agreement with the Mennonites that if they would settle and farm in the West, they would be exempt from military service.
What had changed by the end of the nineteenth century to improve the chances of a successful immigration policy? (3)
The chances of a successful immigration policy improved because the economic depression ended, wheat prices rose, new technologies made crop production more efficient, and Canada had good prairie land available. America had been settled so it no longer competed from immigrants.
How was Laurier's vision of Canada similar to Macdonald's? (1)
Laurier's vision was similar to Macdonald's because they both had a vision of a united Canada. Laurier believed a common sense of nationhood would inspire Canadians to work together to make the country more prosperous.
How was Laurier's vision different? Offer a reason to explain the difference. (2)
Laurier's vision was different because he wanted Canada to forge its identity independently from Britain. His vision was different because he was French-Canadian.
Identify Clifford Sifton. (2)
Clifford Sifton was appointed as the minister of the Interior by Laurier. He was given control of federal land in the West, natural resources, and "Indian affairs".
Why did Sifton feel a need to shift his focus to eastern Europe? (2)
He shifted his focus to eastern Europe because he was convinced that the farmers of the European grasslands had the skills, perseverance, and experience to succeed in farming Canada's grasslands.
Where did many of the Russian Jews settle in Canada? What role would they play in the economy? (3)
Many Russian Jews settled in Toronto, Montreal, and Winnipeg. They brought skills that were needed to establish strong manufacturing industries in Canada.
Discuss the Manitoba Schools Question. (5)
When Manitoba became a province there were 2 publicly funded, church-run school systems, a Catholic where instruction was in French and a Protestant where instruction was in English. By 1890, only 10% of the province spoke French so the legislature created one publicly funded school system that was non-denominational and English. French Catholics didn't like this and as a compromise in the Manitoba law, Roman Catholic teachers could be hired, and religious and French instruction were allowed. In 1916, the Manitoba government ended this law and went back to English only because of the suspicion of European immigrants during World War I.
How and why did the First World War affect women's suffrage? (2)
Women took over the jobs in the workplace. Their service during the war got them the right to vote. Wives of men serving overseas were allowed to vote for their husbands. This was important to gain support for the issue of conscription.
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