pulm 1

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  1. atalectasis
    • shrunken and airless state of the lung
    • --> pain on that side, dyspnea, cyanosis, drop in BP, tachycardia, diminished or absent breath sounds, dull or flat to percussion, fever, reduced chest excursion on that side
  2. vesicular breath sounds
  3. adventitions breath sounds
    extra (crackles, wheezes, ronchi, etc)
  4. hyperventilation -->
    • depletion in CO2 = respiratory alkalosis
    • fall in BP, vasoconstriction, syncope, anxiety, wrist cramping
  5. orthopnea
    difficulty breathing except in sitting or standing
  6. perfusion
    • the volume of blood that cirulates thru the lungs
    • it is gravity dependent
    • if treating a pt with perfusion problems, have involved side down
  7. fouls smelling sputum means...
    anaerobic infection
  8. purulent (yellow or green) sputum means...
  9. frothy sputum means...
    pulmonary edema
  10. mucoid (clear, thick) sputum means...
    cycstic fibrosis or a condition with a chronic cough
  11. hemoptysis
    blood in the sputum
  12. coumadin and heparin -- 1 word description?
  13. epinephrine, Alupent, Ventolin, Proventil -- 1 word description?
    • bronchodilators
    • often used before exercise to reduce neg effects of a disease (ex. asthma)
  14. prednisone, cortisol - 1 word description?
  15. corticosteroids do what for PTs with COPD?
    decrease edema and inflammation
  16. side effects of corticosteroids?
    osteoporosis, muscle wasting, slow wound healing
  17. rales/crackles
    • crackly sound
    • heard during inspiration
    • indicates pathology (atelectasis, fibrosis, pulmonary edema)
    • could be result of air bubles in secretions or mvmnt of fibrotic tissue
  18. what breath sound will likely accompany L ventricular congestive heart failure?
    basilar rales/crackles/crepitations
  19. rhonchi
    • continuous, low pitched
    • expiration
    • 2/2 pathways narrowed by inflammation, bronchospasm, secretion
    • often seen with asthma and chronic bronchitis
  20. stridor
    • continuous
    • inspiration
    • 2/2 upper airway obstruction
  21. wheezes
    • 2/2 obstruction (asthma, COPD, bronchitis,¬†foreign body aspiration)
    • high-pitched, sibilant, musical
    • usually heard on expiration, but can be heard on insp if bad enough constriction
  22. friction rub
    • rubbing of pleural surfaces against each other
    • 2/2 inflam or neoplastic process
    • may be painful on inspiration
  23. emphysema
    permanent abnormal enlargement and destruction of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles

    barrel chest, use of accessory resp muscles, decreased breath sounds w/wo wheezing, dyspnea
  24. 3 emphysema treatments
    • pursed lip expiration
    • edu
    • endurance exercises
  25. flail chest
    2 or more fractures in adjacent ribs --> paradoxical mvmnt during respiration
  26. PaO2 normal value
    75-100 mmHg
  27. PaCO2 normal value
    35-45 mmHg
  28. pH normal value
  29. CO2 content (bicoarbonate) normal value
    23-29 mEq/L
  30. hematocrit normal value
    • male: 40-54%
    • fem: 37-47%
    • newborn: 50-62%
    • volume percent or RBCs in blood
  31. hemoglobin
    • 12-16 g/100mm
    • the O2 transporter
Card Set:
pulm 1
2014-06-13 15:04:01
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