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- shrunken and airless state of the lung
- --> pain on that side, dyspnea, cyanosis, drop in BP, tachycardia, diminished or absent breath sounds, dull or flat to percussion, fever, reduced chest excursion on that side
vesicular breath sounds
adventitions breath sounds
extra (crackles, wheezes, ronchi, etc)
- depletion in CO2 = respiratory alkalosis
- fall in BP, vasoconstriction, syncope, anxiety, wrist cramping
difficulty breathing except in sitting or standing
- the volume of blood that cirulates thru the lungs
- it is gravity dependent
- if treating a pt with perfusion problems, have involved side down
fouls smelling sputum means...
purulent (yellow or green) sputum means...
frothy sputum means...
mucoid (clear, thick) sputum means...
cycstic fibrosis or a condition with a chronic cough
blood in the sputum
coumadin and heparin -- 1 word description?
epinephrine, Alupent, Ventolin, Proventil -- 1 word description?
- often used before exercise to reduce neg effects of a disease (ex. asthma)
prednisone, cortisol - 1 word description?
corticosteroids do what for PTs with COPD?
decrease edema and inflammation
side effects of corticosteroids?
osteoporosis, muscle wasting, slow wound healing
- crackly sound
- heard during inspiration
- indicates pathology (atelectasis, fibrosis, pulmonary edema)
- could be result of air bubles in secretions or mvmnt of fibrotic tissue
what breath sound will likely accompany L ventricular congestive heart failure?
- continuous, low pitched
- 2/2 pathways narrowed by inflammation, bronchospasm, secretion
- often seen with asthma and chronic bronchitis
- 2/2 upper airway obstruction
- 2/2 obstruction (asthma, COPD, bronchitis, foreign body aspiration)
- high-pitched, sibilant, musical
- usually heard on expiration, but can be heard on insp if bad enough constriction
- rubbing of pleural surfaces against each other
- 2/2 inflam or neoplastic process
- may be painful on inspiration
permanent abnormal enlargement and destruction of air spaces distal to terminal bronchioles
barrel chest, use of accessory resp muscles, decreased breath sounds w/wo wheezing, dyspnea
3 emphysema treatments
- pursed lip expiration
- endurance exercises
2 or more fractures in adjacent ribs --> paradoxical mvmnt during respiration
PaO2 normal value
PaCO2 normal value
pH normal value
CO2 content (bicoarbonate) normal value
hematocrit normal value
- male: 40-54%
- fem: 37-47%
- newborn: 50-62%
- volume percent or RBCs in blood
- 12-16 g/100mm
- the O2 transporter