Bio 265 Case Study Questions

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Bio 265 Case Study Questions
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2014-06-13 15:45:11
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  1. What are 2 other names for the Autonomic nervous system?
    • 1. The visceral nervous system.
    • 2. The Involuntary nervous system
  2. T/F: Efferent pathways consist of 2 neurons?
    True.
  3. What does the CNS stand for?
    The Central Nervous System. It includes the Brain and the spinal Chord.
  4. What are the 2 unique and distinct divisions of the ANS?
    • 1. The parasympathetic nervous system.
    • 2. The sympathetic nervous system.
  5. T/F: tissues can be innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?
    True.
  6. What does "both systems (the parasympathetic and the sympathetic) are tonically active on certain tissues" mean?
    It means that both systems are working on a given tissue at the same time. Think of a tug of war, both sides are pulling but some times one side is pulling harder than the other.
  7. What does Acetelcholineesterase (ACH-ase) do?
    It is an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine (ACH) clearing the synaptic cleft for the next signal.
  8. ACH is the primary postganglionic neurotrasmitter of what system?
    The parasympathetic nervous system.
  9. Norepinephrine is the primary postganglionic neurotransmitter of what system?
    The sympathetic nervous system.
  10. Characterize the pre and post ganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system:
    Short Cholinergic preganglionic fibers; long adrenergic postganglionic fibers.
  11. Characterize the pre and post ganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system:
    Long cholinergic preganglionic fibers; short cholinergic postganglionic fibers.
  12. Where are the ganglia for the sympathetic system?
    Just outside of the spinal chord in the sympathetic chain ganglia.
  13. Where are the ganglia for the parasympathetic system?
    On or near the target tissue.
  14. What is the pre to post ganglionic fiber ratio for the sympathetic system?
    1:20. This means that a single preganglionic fiber could transmit it's fight or flight signal to 20 other fibers all going to different parts of the body.
  15. What is the pre to post ganglionic fiber ratio for the parasympathetic system?
    1:3. This means that a single preganglionic fiber could activate 3 other rest and digest fibers. This is much more localized than the sympathetic system.
  16. How do postganglionic sympathetic fibers travel to their target organs?
    They travel within the 31 nerves leaving the spine (spinal nerves).
  17. How do parasympathetic fibers travel to their target organs?
    They travel in either the 10 cranial nerves or the sacral nerves.
  18. 75% of all parasympathetic fibers are in the ___ nerve.
    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve 10).
  19. Are parasympathetic preganglionic fibers cholinergic or adrenergic?
    They are cholinergic (they release Acetylcholine aka ACH).
  20. Are sympathetic preganglionic fibers cholinergic or adrenergic?
    They are cholinergic (they release Acetylcholine aka ACH).
  21. Are parasympathetic postganglionic fibers cholinergic or adrenergic?
    They are cholinergic (they release Acetylcholine aka ACH).
  22. Are sympathetic postganglionic fibers cholinergic or adrenergic?
    They are adrenergic (releasing norepinephrine) except for fibers that lead to sweat glands. Those are cholinergic (releasing Acetylcholine aka ACH).
  23. Describe the breakdown of Acetylcholine by Acetylcholine esterase:
    ACH is broken down into Acetic acid and Choline.
  24. What do Organophospates inhibit?
    The enzyme activity of the protein Acetylcholine-esterase. It can no longer break down ACH
  25. Why are the neurons that innervate sweat glands unique?
    Because they are Sympathetic fibers, but both the pre and postganglionic synapses are cholinergic (releasing ACH). For all other Sympathetic fibers the postganglionic fibers release Norepinephrine (adrenergic).
  26. Which division of the Autonomic nervous system causes systems wide responses?
    The Sympathetic nervous system.
  27. Which division of the Autonomic nervous system causes discrete and localized responses?
    The Parasympathetic nervous system.
  28. Why can a single sympathetic signal cause such a huge response?
    Because the single signal is propogated at the sympathetic chain ganglion, it can go out and cause 20 other signals. This leads to a system wide response from a single signal.
  29. What would happen if the parasympathetic nervous system propogated signals like the sympathetic system?
    Any time we ever ate anything we would have a systems wide signal to "rest and digest" and we would drop into a coma, and likely die of low blood pressure

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