pulm & cardiac

Card Set Information

pulm & cardiac
2014-06-13 13:50:58
license exam

license exam
Show Answers:

  1. how to diagnose cystic fibrosis
    • blood test indicating trypsinogen
    • positive sweat electrolyte test
  2. bronchiectasis
    • chronic congenital or acquired
    • abnormal dilation of bronchi and excessive sputum production
  3. respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) aka hyaline membrane disease
    alveolar collapse in premature infant 2/2 inadequete levels of pulmonary surfactant
  4. PaCO2 in obstructive vs restrictive
    • obstructive: it increases
    • restrictive: decreases
  5. FEV1 in obstructive vs restrictive
    • obs: sharp decrease
    • rest: normal
  6. 1 MET  equals what?
    what activities?
    • uptake of 3.5 mL of O2 per kg of body wt per min
    • 3.5 mL O2/kg/min
    • (at rest / 1 MET- at body consumes ~200-250 mL O2/min)
    • sitting, reading, AROM in supine, amb at 1mph
  7. 7-10 METs -- what activities?
    running, basketball, heavy shoveling, vigorous skiing...
  8. lidocain, dilantin, norpace, quinidine -- what are they?
    anti-arrhythmic drugs
  9. atropine is what?
    • anti-cholinergic
    • used for heart block or bradycardia
  10. how do atropine and other anticholinergic drugs work?
    inhibit acetylcholine at parasymp nerves, blocking vagal effects on SA and AV noes
  11. side effects of anti-cholinergic drugs such as atropine
    palpitations, headache, restlessness, ataxia, dry mouth, blurred vision
  12. beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers)
    • decrease HR, BP, contractility, SV
    • they increase tolerance for exercise, but if on beta-blockers you can't use HR etc to eval the tolerance - use a perceived exertion scale
    • all end in -olol
  13. calcium channel blockers do what?
    • vasodilate and relieve coronary artery spasm
    • can lead to inschemia
  14. digitalis/digoxin - does what?
    • slows HR
    • increases contractility / pumping ability
  15. heart block is what? what med is used?
    • spread of electrical excitation to the heart is interrupted or slowed
    • atropine
  16. infarction
    necrotic tissue 2/2 loss of blood supply to that area
  17. lipoproteins do what?
    carry fat in blood to cells
  18. LDL are associated with...
    arterial damage
  19. HDL do what
    • promote removal of cholesterol by liver
    • mod levels of exercise may increase HDL levels
  20. nitrates
    • drugs that dilate blood vessels to reduce BP, preload, and O2 demands of heart
    • ex: nitroglycerin
  21. 3 serum enzymes that appear in circulation following death of cardiac muscle cells
    • creatine phosphate (CPK)
    • lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
    • serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)
  22. R coronary artery supplies...
    • R atrium
    • R ventricle
    • AV node
    • SA node
    • interventricular septum
    • inferior wall of L ventricle
  23. L coronary artery supplies...
    • all of L vent except the inf wall
    • interventricular septum
  24. cor pulmonale
    failure or hypertrophy of R ventrucle 2/2 disorders of lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall
  25. lasix is what kind of med?
  26. bruit
    • abnormal sound/murmor of arterial or venous origin
    • indicates: atherosclerosis
  27. low stroke volume --> what kind of pulse?
    weak, thready
  28. shortened ventricular systole and decreased peripheral pressure --> what kind of pulse?
    bounding, full
  29. S1 sound indicates what?
    • closure of mitral and tricuspid valves
    • the start of systole
  30. S2 indicates what?
    • closing of pulm and aortic valve
    • end of systole
  31. S3 is associated with...?
    congestive heart failure
  32. S4 is associated with
    MI or chronic hypertension