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how to diagnose cystic fibrosis
- blood test indicating trypsinogen
- positive sweat electrolyte test
- chronic congenital or acquired
- abnormal dilation of bronchi and excessive sputum production
respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) aka hyaline membrane disease
alveolar collapse in premature infant 2/2 inadequete levels of pulmonary surfactant
PaCO2 in obstructive vs restrictive
- obstructive: it increases
- restrictive: decreases
FEV1 in obstructive vs restrictive
- obs: sharp decrease
- rest: normal
1 MET equals what?
- uptake of 3.5 mL of O2 per kg of body wt per min
- 3.5 mL O2/kg/min
- (at rest / 1 MET- at body consumes ~200-250 mL O2/min)
- sitting, reading, AROM in supine, amb at 1mph
7-10 METs -- what activities?
running, basketball, heavy shoveling, vigorous skiing...
lidocain, dilantin, norpace, quinidine -- what are they?
atropine is what?
- used for heart block or bradycardia
how do atropine and other anticholinergic drugs work?
inhibit acetylcholine at parasymp nerves, blocking vagal effects on SA and AV noes
side effects of anti-cholinergic drugs such as atropine
palpitations, headache, restlessness, ataxia, dry mouth, blurred vision
beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta blockers)
- decrease HR, BP, contractility, SV
- they increase tolerance for exercise, but if on beta-blockers you can't use HR etc to eval the tolerance - use a perceived exertion scale
- all end in -olol
calcium channel blockers do what?
- vasodilate and relieve coronary artery spasm
- can lead to inschemia
digitalis/digoxin - does what?
- slows HR
- increases contractility / pumping ability
heart block is what? what med is used?
- spread of electrical excitation to the heart is interrupted or slowed
necrotic tissue 2/2 loss of blood supply to that area
lipoproteins do what?
carry fat in blood to cells
LDL are associated with...
HDL do what
- promote removal of cholesterol by liver
- mod levels of exercise may increase HDL levels
- drugs that dilate blood vessels to reduce BP, preload, and O2 demands of heart
- ex: nitroglycerin
3 serum enzymes that appear in circulation following death of cardiac muscle cells
- creatine phosphate (CPK)
- lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
- serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)
R coronary artery supplies...
- R atrium
- R ventricle
- AV node
- SA node
- interventricular septum
- inferior wall of L ventricle
L coronary artery supplies...
- all of L vent except the inf wall
- interventricular septum
failure or hypertrophy of R ventrucle 2/2 disorders of lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall
lasix is what kind of med?
- abnormal sound/murmor of arterial or venous origin
- indicates: atherosclerosis
low stroke volume --> what kind of pulse?
shortened ventricular systole and decreased peripheral pressure --> what kind of pulse?
S1 sound indicates what?
- closure of mitral and tricuspid valves
- the start of systole
S2 indicates what?
- closing of pulm and aortic valve
- end of systole
S3 is associated with...?
congestive heart failure
S4 is associated with
MI or chronic hypertension