IHS - Radiation

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Author:
Shells33
ID:
276758
Filename:
IHS - Radiation
Updated:
2014-06-13 16:57:50
Tags:
CRNA
Folders:
IHS
Description:
Radiation
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  1. In what measurement is radiation exposure reported?
    roentgen equivalents man (REM)
  2. What is REM?
    the measure of biologic damage from radiation adjusted to apply to all tissues
  3. What are the two categories of radiation?
    ionizing, non-ionizing
  4. What are the 2 types of ionizing radiation?
    • particulate
    • electromagnetic
  5. What are the two types of particulate ionizing radiation?
    alpha and beta particles
  6. What are the two types of electromagnetic radiation?
    gamma and X-rays
  7. What is the difference between gamma rays and x rays?
    gamma rays are from a natural source, x rays are man made
  8. As the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave shortens, its energy _____
    increases
  9. Where are alpha and beta particles mainly used?
    nuclear med
  10. Does an alpha wave lost its energy in a short or long amount of time?
    short
  11. What stops an alpha wave?
    • tissue paper
    • dead skin
  12. How dangerous is external exposure? how about internal?
    • external - not dangerous
    • internal - dangerous if inhaled or ingested
  13. How does a beta particle compare to an alpha particle?
    • longer laster
    • lighter in weight
    • can be stopped by thin sheet of plastic
    • can travel through 2 cm tissue externally
  14. Where are beta particles used?
    • PET scan
    • Strontium 90 radiation for eye CA
  15. How do electromagnetic waves behave?
    like waves and a particle - cannot bend around corners
  16. What is the energy and ability to penetrate of gamma rays?
    high energy, highly penetrating
  17. What stops gamma rays?
    lead or concrete
  18. Where are gamma rays used in medicine?
    cardiac scans, V/Q scans, Thyoid uptake of iodine 123
  19. How are x-rays expressed?
    milliampere-seconds (mAs)
  20. How does the beam intensity of an X-ray relate to its distance from target?
    inversely proportional to the square of its distance
  21. what does mAs tell you about an X-ray?
    the QUANTITY of x rays
  22. what does kilovolt peak (kVp) tell you about x rays?
    • the QUALITY of X-ray¬†
    • increased kVp = increased penetrability
  23. As kVp increases, scatter ____
    increases
  24. What is an early or deterministic dose? What are examples of early radiation exposure?
    severity of symptoms are r/t to dose. cataracts, skin injury (sunburn)
  25. What is a late effect or stochastic exposure?
    from repeated low doses of radiation over long periods. severity of response is NOT related to intensity of dose.
  26. What tissues are most radiosensitive?
    WBC, bone marrow, intestinal epithelium, reproductive cells

    sensitivity directly proportional to reproductive activity/cellular metabolic activity rates
  27. What are the least radiosensitive tissues?
    mature RBC's, muscle cells, mature bone and cartilage
  28. What is the max annual occupational radiation exposure?
    5 REM
  29. How do you protect yourself against radiation?
    Time, Distance, Shielding
  30. What is the recommended minimum distance from the patient being exposed to radiation?
    • 3 ft
    • 6 ft = 2.5 mm of lead
  31. What does LASER stand for?
    Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
  32. What are the 3 ways laser light differs from visible light?
    • 1) Monochromatic (one wavelength)
    • 2) Coherent (oscillates in same phase)
    • 3) Collimated (narrow, parallel beam)
  33. What are the 3 types of lasers?
    CO2, Nd:YAG, Argon
  34. Which lasers are invisible to the eye?
    CO2 and Nd:YAG
  35. Where does the CO2 laser damage? What type of glasses should you wear?
    cornea only. regular glasses with side guards.
  36. What does the Nd-YAG laster damage? What type of glasses should you wear?
    • Retina
    • opaque green or clear with special coating
  37. What do the KTP and Argon lasers damage? What type of glasses should you wear?
    • KTP: retina, red filter eye wear
    • Argon: retina, opaque orange eyewear
  38. How do you protect the patient's eyes from the laser?
    saline moistened gauze and laser shields.

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