Genetics and Evolution Science Test

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Genetics and Evolution Science Test
2014-06-13 19:56:16

Study cards for my assessment.
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  1. Define Allele, dominant and recessive.
    • Different forms of a gene you inherit. 1 allele comes from each parent. Recessive -represented by a lower case letter. 
    • Dominant- Represented by Upper case letter.
  2. What is a mutation?
    A change in the base sequence of DNa. Caused by mutagens such as various chemicals (UV light, X rays etc)
  3. What are chromosomes made up of?
  4. Define Gene
    A short length of DNA that carries the genetic code for the production of a protein.
  5. Natural selection
    The process where organisms better adapted to their environment. They tend to survive and reproduce better than the other of their species
  6. Artificial selection
    When people use selective breeding to produce new varieties of a species. Selective breeding means that humans control which organisms are abel to reproduce.
  7. how many chromosomes  are found in a human
    a) Skin cell
    b) sperm cell
    c) fertilised egg
    • Skin cell - 46
    • Sperm cell - 23
    • Fertilised egg - 23 cell
  8. What is vestigial structure?
    A body part of an organism that tends to be reduced in size and does not have a use.
  9. What is variation?
    • Variation can be described as being continuous or discontinuous.
    • In continuous variation there is a complete range of measurements from one extreme to another.
  10. Define clone
    an organism produced asexually from one parent. They are genetically identical to the parent.
  11. Asexual reproduction
    Asexual reproduction need only a female. The offspring are identical to the parent and to each other. It is faster than sexual production as it requires only 1 parent and you don't waste time finding a mate.
  12. Define sexual reproduction
    Sexual reproduction requires two parents. The offspring produced is similar, but not identical. This variation is the main advantage of sexual reproduction. However, the cost of actually having to find a mate, breeding and producing the offspring.