1. Biological factors
: inherited personality
2. The roles we play
: birth order, student, employee...
- 3. Social identity: group you belong to
- - Out-group members are similar to one another
- - Favour one's in-group
- - Random allocation to groups is sufficient
4. Social comparisons
: evaluation with others in wealth, intelligence, etc.
5. Other people's judgements
: spotlight effect, looking-glass self