Psy 312 Chapter 9

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  1. Social cognitive theory assumes
    people are the main cause of their own behavior (personal agency)
  2. personal agency
    it's due to self-regulation and self efficacy
  3. self-regulation
    altering behavior in consistent and appropriate ways to various task demands without being directed to do so
  4. self-regulation in classroom
    using the right set of learning techniques for a particular task
  5. The role of self-efficacy in self-regulation
    students with high self-efficacy more likely to use self-regulating learning skills than students low in self-efficacy
  6. Self-efficacy beliefs affect many aspects of self-regulation
    1. Optimistic or pessimistic thoughts; 2. Approach or avoid tasks; 3. High or low motivation; 4. Persevere for long or short periods when tasks are difficult; 5. Use of more effective or less effective learning skills; 6. Motivated or demoralized by failure
  7. Factors that affect self-efficacy
    performance accomplishments; verbal persuasion; emotional arousal; vicarious experience
  8. Types of behaviors affected by self-efficacy
    selection processes; cognitive processes; motivational processes; affective processes
  9. The components of a self-regulatory system
    forethought phase; performance phase; self-reflection phase
  10. forethought phase
    planning and self-motivational beliefs
  11. performance phase
    self-control and self-observation (self-monitoring)
  12. self-reflection phase
    was the result acceptable? and decide whether and how to improve
  13. planning
    set goals; formulate a strategy to achieve those goals
  14. self-motivational beliefs
    self-efficacy beliefs; outcome expectations; intrinsic interest; goal orientation; epistemological beliefs
  15. self-control
    focus on task, ignore distractions; think about the steps involved in completing a task
  16. self-observation (self-monitoring)
    track performance; try different approaches to learning
  17. (self-reflection phase) Was the result acceptable?
    1. evaluate performance in one of four ways: mastery of teacher's objectives, comparison with past performances, comparison with classmates, contribution to group effort; 2. attribute outcomes to effort, ability, task difficulty, luck
  18. How well prepared are students to be self-regulated learners?
    Many (most) do not self-regulate systematically or consistently; rote rehearsal, simple organizational schemes, and various cueing devices account for tactics most used; most students require several years of systematic instruction to become proficient self-regulated learners
  19. The nature of learning tactics and strategies
    learning strategy and learning tactic
  20. learning strategy
    a general plan that a learner formulates for achieving a somewhat distant academic goal
  21. learning tactic
    a specific technique that a learner uses to accomplish an immediate learning objective
  22. Types of tactics
    memory-directed tactics and comprehension-directed tactics
  23. memory-directed tactics
    techniques that help produce accurate storage and retrieval of information
  24. types of memory-directed tactics
    rehearsal (rote and cumulative); mnemonic devices (rhyme, acronym, acrostic, method of loci, keyword)
  25. comprehension-directed tactics
    techniques that aid in understanding the meaning of ideas and their interrelationships
  26. types of comprehension-directed tactics
    self-questioning and peer-questioning; and concept mapping
  27. cumulative rehearsal
    take subset of items and rehearse that, drop top of list and add a different one, rehearse that, then do it again
  28. method of loci
    create visual images and set of locations to place things, and then mentally "walk through room" and retrieve things
  29. self-questioning and peer-questioning
    question stems help students ask appropriate questions about ideas and their interrelationships
  30. concept mapping
    a technique for identifying, visually organizing, and representing the relationships among a set of ideas
  31. Why are mnemonic devices effective?
    They made information easier to encode and retrieve because they provide a context in which items can be organized, allow familiar and more meaningful items to be associated with new items, provide retrieval cues, and force the learner to be an active participant
  32. Why should you teach children to use mnemonic devices
    1. They reduce the amount of time spent looking up facts; 2. Effective problem solving requires ready access to an organized and meaningful knowledge base; 3. Students learn that the ability to store and recall large amounts of information is an acquired capability that anyone can acquire
  33. Conclusions regarding learning tactics
    1. Students will not learn about tactics and become skilled at using them on their own (need to be systematically taught); 2. Tactics should not be taught in isolation, but as part of a broad learning strategy
  34. Supporting students' strategy use
    1. Remind students to formulate new strategies whenever the task situation changes (for example: type of info, teaching method, exams, and motivation level); 2. Give students feedback about the nature of the strategies they create and how well they work; 3. Tell students that they are capable of becoming self-regulated learners; 4. Give students all the task info they need to become strategic learners
  35. Modeling and self-regulated learning
    put chart in 4x6
  36. What research says about social cognitive theory
    Most results are positive and consistent with what the theory predicts (put examples in 4x6...maybe)
  37. Using technology to promote self-regulated learning
    modeling; providing cognitive and metacognitive feedback; providing scaffolded instruction
  38. modeling
    characters in a computerized simulation can serve as effective problem solving models
  39. providing cognitive and metacognitive feedback
    computer programs can help students improve their summarizing and problem solving skills by providing opportunities for practice and feedback
  40. providing scaffolded instruction
    computer programs can provide students with the supports they need to acquire and refine new skills
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Psy 312 Chapter 9
2014-06-16 03:29:42

Ed Psych exam 2
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