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work with and through others to accomplish organizations goals
Three levels of management: Lower-level managers; Middle-level managers; and
Types of Managers
- managers at lowest level in the organization that manage the work of non-managerial employees
- manager between first-line level and top level who manage the work of first-line managers
- responsible for making organization wide decisions and establishing plans and
Lower, Middle, Top
- Management Functions
- ....leads to "Achieving the Org.'s stated purpose"
- •Planning:defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
- determining tasks to be done, who should do them, how tasks should be grouped,
- who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made.
- •Leading: motivating subordinates, directing workers/teams, selecting best comm channels, and resolving employee behaviour issues
- •Controlling: monitoring actual performance, comparing actual performance to a standard, and taking corrective action when necessary
coordinating work activities to accomplish them efficiently and effectively
with and through other people
- •Efficiency -getting the most output from least amount of inputs; doing
- things right
- •Effectively -completing activities so that organizational goals are accomplished; doing
- the right things
- •defining goals, establishing
- strategies to achieve goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate
•determining tasks to be done, who
- should do them, how tasks should be grouped, who reports to whom, and where
- decisions are to be made.
- monitoring actual performance,
- comparing actual performance to a standard, and taking corrective action when
- •involve working with people,
- ceremonial duties and symbolic roles
- • involves receiving, collecting
- and disseminating information
- making significant choices that
- affect the organization
- skills - knowledge and expertise in a specialized field.
- skills - ability to work with people both individually and in groups.
- skills - mental ability to analyze and generate ideas about abstract and
- complex situations.
The External Environment (exhibit 2-2)
- The External Environment:
- 1. Global
- 2. General
- Political, Legal, socio-cultural, technological, Environmental, Economic, Environment
- 3. Specific
- Employees, Customers, Social & Political action groups, Competitors, Trade & Industry Associations, Governments, Media, Suppliers, Communities, Shareholders, Unions
- (ORGANIZATIONS : includes sole proprietorships and corporations)
Cross Cultural Considerations:
Hofstede’s Approach to Understanding Differences Between National Cultures
- •Individualism v. Collectivism
- •Power Distance
- •Uncertainty Avoidance
- •Achievement v. Nurturing
- •Long-term v. Short-term Orientation
Cross Cultural Awareness:
- •1. Fully Accept Diversity
- •2. Recruit Broadly
- •3. Select Fairly
- •4. Provide Orientation and Training for
- •5. Sensitize Non-minorities
- •6. Strive to be Flexible
- •7. Seek to Motivate Individually
- •8. Reinforce Employee Differences
The Strategic Management Process
- 1. Identify the Org's Current Mission, Goals & Strategies
- 2. SWOT analysis
- A- Internal Analysis (strengths, weaknesses)
- B- External Analysis (Opportunities, threats)
- 3. Formulate Strategies
- 4. Implement Strategies
- 5. Evaluate Results
STEPS IN GOAL SETTING:
- 1.Review org.’s vision and mission
- 2.Evaluate available resources (internal and external*)
- 3.Determine goals (traditionally or MBO)
- 4.Record and communicate goals to all
- who need to know
- 5.Review results
Characteristics of Well-Designed Goals
- •Written in terms of outcomes rather
- than actions
- •Quantifiable and measurable
- •Clear time frame
- •Challenging but attainable
- •Participation and feedback from all necessary org. members
Types of Plans
- •Vision and Mission
- - purpose of org.
- •Strategic Plans
- - apply to entire org. and seek to position in terms of its environment
- •Operational Plan
- - specify details of how overall goals are to be achieved
- •Long-term Plans -
- - plans more than 3 years
- •Short-term Plans
- - plans of 1 year or less
- •Specific Plans -
- clearly defined with no room for nterpretation
- •Directional Plans -
- flexible plans setting out general guidelines
- •Single-Use Plans
- - one time plan designed to meet needs of a specific situation
- •Standing Plans
- - provide guidance for activities performed repeatedly
- •STRENGTHS -
- activities the org. does well or any unique resources it has.
- •WEAKNESSES -
- activities the org. does not do well or any resources it needs but does not have.
- •OPPORTUNITIES -
- positive trends in external factors.
- •THREATS -
- negative trends in the external environment.
Types of Strategies
- •CORPORATE STRATEGIES
- - evaluate what business a venture is in, should be in, or wants to be in
- •BUSINESS STRATEGIES
- - corporate strategy must then be turned into a business strategy that gives the venture a competitive advantage (what sets an org. apart; an org.’s distinct edge)
- •FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES
- - used by org.’s various departments to support the business strategy
- •GROWTH STRATEGIES -
- when an org. wants to grow and does so by adding products or markets served.
- •STABILITY STRATEGY
- - maintaining the status quo.
- •RENEWAL STRATEGIES -
- addresses org.’s weaknesses that are leading to performance decline.
- achieved when org. concentrates on primary business increasing products offered or markets served.
- •Vertical Integration
- - org. attempts to gain control of inputs (backward integration), or outputs (forward integration), or both.
- • Horizontal Integration -
- growth by combining with other org.s in the same industry
- •Related Diversification - when an org. grows by combining with firms in different but related industries
- •Unrelated Diversification - when an org. grows by combining with firms in different and unrelated industries (called Conglomerates)
- •Resources, capabilities and core
- competencies may be stretched to their limits
- •Industry may be experiencing slow
- or no growth
- •Owners may choose not to suffer the
- hassles associated with expansion
- •RETRENCHMENT STRATEGY
- - reduces org.’s activities or operation by cost reductions, layoffs, store closures, canceling product lines or services
- •TURNAROUND STRATEGY -
- for use in times when org.’s performance problems are more critical, ie. not slow growth but losses
•In any industry six competitive forces dictate the rules of competition:
- 1.Threat of new entrants
- 2.Threat of substitutes
- 3.Bargaining power of buyers
- 4.Bargaining power of suppliers
- 5.Current-competitive rivalry
- 6.Power of complementors
- •COST LEADERSHIP
- -org. sets out to be the lowest-cost producer in its industry.
- -org. seeks to offer unique products that are widely valued by customers.
- •FOCUS STRATEGY
- - org. pursues a cost or differentiation advantage in a narrow industry segment.
- •Stuck in the Middle
- occurs when a business is unable to develop a competitive advantage through either cost or differentiation.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
- •CORP. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
- - business’s obligation beyond that required by law and economics to do the right things and act in a way that is good for society
- -rules and principles that define right and wrong
- •CODE OF ETHICS
- - formal statement of an org.’s primary values and ethical rules it expects its employees to follow
- •CLASSICAL VIEW
- - management’s only responsibility is to maximize profits
- Case of Sutton’s Hospital (1612)
- Sir Edward Coke in hie reasons for judgement discussed the nature of
- corporations and stated, “...they have no souls,...”*
- •SOCIO-ECONOMIC VIEW
- - management’s social responsibility goes beyond profits to include protecting and improving society’s welfare
DEVELOPING PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS
- 1. Think of yourself as creative.
- 2. Pay attention to your intuition.
- 3.Move away from your comfort zone.
- 4.Determine what you want to do.
- 5.Look for ways to tackle the problem.
- 6.Look for ways to do things better.
- 7.Find several right answers.
- 8.Believe in finding a workable solution.
- 9.Brainstorm with others
- 10. Turn creative ideas into action.
how job tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated within an org.
- 1.Work Specialization
- 3.Chain of Command
- •-Line and Staff Authority
- 4.Span of Control
- 5.Centralization and Decentralization