Biology 30s - Final Exam Part I

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  1. What are the characteristics of living things? (8)
    • either unicellular or multicellular
    • use energy
    • had definite shape and limited size 
    • has limited life span
    • they grow
    • respond to changes in the environment
    • they reproduce
    • they evolve or change over time
  2. define wellness
    awareness by the individual that their physical structures and functions are working harmoniously as a whole unit
  3. define homeostasis
    the body's ability to a constant internal environment despite a changing external environment
  4. describe the negative feedback mechanism (5)
    • stimulus produces change in variable
    • change is detected by receptor
    • information is sent to control center
    • information is sent to effector
    • effector returns body to homeostasis
  5. structure and function of the cell wall (2)
    • location: outside the plasma membrane
    • function: protects the plant cell and provides support against water
  6. structure and function of the cytoplasm (2)
    • location: enclosed by the cell membrane
    • function: contains the organelles
  7. structure and function of the mitochondria (2)
    • location: in the cytoplasm
    • function: makes energy for the cell and site of cellular respiration
  8. structure and function of ribosomes (2)
    • location: floating in cytoplasm or bound to rough ER
    • function: builds proteins
  9. structure and function of the endoplasmic reticulum (2)
    • location: surrounds the nucleus
    • function: transports materials
  10. structure and function of chloroplasts (2)
    • location: within the cell wall
    • function: contains chlorophyll where photosynthesis occurs
  11. structure and function of the vauole (2)
    • location: in the cytoplasm
    • function: used for storage (animal cell) and used for water/food/waste storage and provides support (plant cell)
  12. structure and function of the nucleus (2)
    • location: center of the cell
    • function: control center of the cell and contains genetic material
  13. what is the cell membrane composed of (4)
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • integral proteins
    • glycoproteins
    • cholesterol
  14. what is the function of the phospholipid bilayer (2)
    • hydrophilic end (water attracting)
    • hydrophobic end (water repelling)
  15. what is the function of integral proteins (2)
    • cell receptors
    • transports substances across the cell membrane
  16. what is the function of glycoproteins (2)
    • cell receptors
    • immune response: acts as a name tag or idefor the immune system
  17. what is the function of cholesterol (1)
    steroid used to regulate the fluidity of the cell membrane
  18. define passive transport
    transport without the use of energy
  19. define active transport
    transport with the use of energy
  20. what are the 3 types of passive transport (3)
    • diffusion
    • osmosis
    • facilitated diffusion
  21. define diffusion
    particles follow a [] gradient
  22. define osmosis
    diffusion of water following a [] gradient
  23. define facilitated diffusion
    diffusion using carrier protein in the plasma membrane
  24. what are the 3 types of active transport (3)
    • ion pumps
    • endocytosis
    • exocytosis
  25. define ion pumps
    proteins embedded in the ell membrane to allow passage of certain ions
  26. define endocytosis
    the cell membrane folds into a pouch and the pouch pinches off to form a vesicle
  27. define exocytosis
    a vesicle moved to a cell membrane, fuses with it, and releases its contents outside the cell
  28. define hypertonic
    having a greater osmotic pressure than another
  29. define hypotonic
    having a lower osmotic pressure than another
  30. define isotonic
    having the same osmotic pressure
  31. What is the difference between organic and inorganic chemistry
    organic chemistry deals with compounds that contain carbon while inorganic chemistry deals with compounds that do not contain carbon
  32. what are the 6 essential nutrients for life (6)
    • carbohydrates
    • protein
    • fat
    • vitamins
    • minerals
    • water
  33. what are the functions of carbohydrates (3)
    • source of energy
    • source of fibre
    • structure and protection
  34. define glycolysis
    break down of sugars to produce energy
  35. define monosaccharide
    simple sugars that form the basic structure of all carbohydrates
  36. define disaccharides
    made up of 2 monosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesis
  37. define polysaccharides
    these are complex carbohydrate molecules made from simple sugars that are bonded to form chains
  38. define simple carbohydrates
    provides quick energy "high" followed by a lull of low energy "low"
  39. define complex carbohydrates
    used as an energy reserve and structural parts of plants and animals
  40. what are the functions of lipids (5)
    • energy storage
    • protection
    • insulation
    • hormone production
    • structure in cell membrane
  41. what are the 3 types of lipids (3)
    • triglycerides
    • steroids
    • phospholipids
  42. structure of triglyceride
    made of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
  43. structure of glycerol
    3 carbon chain with an alcohol (OH) bonded to each carbon
  44. structure of phospholipids
    chain of carbon atoms with a carboxyl group
  45. define saturated fats
    single bonds between all the carbon atoms, saturated with hydrogen, easily broken down, bad for the body
  46. define unsaturated fats
    double bonds between some carbon atoms, not saturated with hydrogen, hard to break down, useful for the body
  47. what is the structure of steroids
    carbon rings are bent to form 4 fuse rings
  48. what is the function of steroids (4)
    • helps harden the cell membrane in animals, maintains fluidity
    • used for hormonal functions
    • muscle development
    • kidney function
  49. define hydrogenation
    to add hydrogen to a molecule to make it saturated
  50. define hydrogenated fatty acids
    unsaturated fatty acids that have hydrogen added to make them solid at room temperature
  51. omega 3 deficiencies (4)
    • cardiac disease
    • acne
    • insomnia
    • link to psychiatric illness
  52. omega 6 deficiencies (7)
    • impaired growth
    • weakness
    • dry skin
    • impaired vision
    • mood swings
    • edema
    • high triglycerides
  53. define cholesterol
    • used to harden cell membrane in animals
    • travels through the bloodstream as lipoproteins
  54. define LDL (4)
    • saturated fat
    • bad cholesterol
    • delivers cholesterol to the cell
    • remainder sticks to blood vessels
  55. define HDL (4)
    • unsaturated fat
    • good cholesterol
    • carries LDL to liver then passed
    • keeps vessels clear from build up
  56. draw glucose
    Image Upload
  57. draw maltose
    Image Upload
  58. define denaturation
    the liver breaks down proteins to be used as energy
  59. draw an amino acid
    Image Upload
  60. structure of amino acids (3)
    • an amine group
    • a carboxyl acid group
    • an "R" group
  61. define enzymes
    a protein produced by living cells that promotes the chemical processes of life without itself being altered
  62. describe the lock and key theory
    • one enzyme is specific for one substrate
    • used to break down the substrate into useful products
  63. describe the enzyme substrate complex
    • >substrate (changes) + enzyme (same)>
    • > substrate-enzyme (chemical reaction)>
    • >products + enzyme (same)
  64. define a catalyst
    substance that speeds up a process without changing itself
  65. characteristics of enzymes (5)
    • specifity: all enzymes work for a specific reaction
    • concentration: reaction will be faster with more enzymes
    • pH: work best at body temperature
    • activision: energy is need to start reaction
    • inhibitors: certain enzymes slow or stop enzymes
  66. define cofactor
    inorganic component of an enzyme (minerals)
  67. define coenzyme
    organic component of an enzyme (vitamins)
  68. describe enzyme action (3)
    • active site: responsible for the chemical change
    • substrate: chemicals bind to the active site and undergo a chemical reaction
    • products: result of the chemical reaction
  69. function of the blood (3)
    • transportation
    • regulation
    • protection
  70. function of transportation (4)
    • dissolved gases
    • distribution of nutrients
    • chemical messengers
    • cellular wastes
  71. functions of regulation (3)
    • maintains body temperature
    • maintains pH
    • maintains water balance
  72. functions of protection (2)
    • immune system
    • clots
  73. define hematocrit
    centrifuge spins blood to separate into 2 main layers (plasma 55%, cellular components 45%)
  74. components of the blood (4)
    • plasma
    • erythrocytes 
    • leukocytes
    • platelets
  75. characteristics of RBC (3)
    • disk shaped 
    • small and thin
    • no nucleus
  76. functions of RBC
    carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
  77. characteristics of WBC (2)
    • spherical and can change shape
    • contains a nucleus
  78. functions of WBC
    protect the body from infection and disease causing organisms called pathogens
  79. types of WBC (5)
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  80. define immunity
    the ability to fight infection through production of antibodies
  81. define antigen
    any substance that can cause an immune respose
  82. define antibody
    a blood protein that binds to and attacks foreign substances
  83. define plasma
    the colorless fluid component of blood
  84. define platelet
    a small cell fragment involved in blood clotting
  85. define pathogen
    viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms that cause diseases
  86. define RBC
    cells that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
  87. define granular
    consisting of small particles
  88. define agranular
    lacking granules
  89. define WBC
    blood cells that protect the body from disease causing organisms
  90. define Rh factor
    a group of antigens found on the surface of red blood cells
  91. define phagocyte
    a type of cell within the body capable of engulfing bacteria, foreign substances, and cancer cells
  92. define eosinophil
    a phagocytic WBC that releases clot digesting enzymes
  93. define basophil
    a type of WBC that releases heparin
  94. define lymphocyte
    a type of WBC that recognizes and destroys antigens present in body tissue
  95. define neutrophil
    a phagocytic WBC that ingest smaller particles
  96. define monocyte
    a phagocytic WBC that fights infections in tissue
  97. define Erythroblastosis fetalis
    the abnormal presence of immature erythrocytes in the blood
  98. define passive immunity
    a type of immunity that is acquired when a person is given antibiotics from another person
  99. define active immunity
    a type of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies to attack a particular antigen
  100. define agglutination
    the clumping of red blood cells due to antibody-anitigen interaction
  101. define macrophages
    cells that ingest large particles
  102. characteristics of neutrophils
    • granular
    • 65% of WBC
    • phagocytosis of small particles
  103. characteristics of eosinophils
    • granular
    • 2-4%
    • release clot digesting enzymes
    • combat allergy causing substances
  104. characteristics of basophils
    • granular
    • .05% of WBC
    • releases heparin
  105. characteristics of lymphocytes
    • agranular
    • 20-25% of WBC
    • B cells/T cells
  106. characteristics of monocytes
    • agranular
    • 3-8% of WBC
    • phagocytosis of large particles, swells to become macrophages
  107. blood clotting steps
    • platelets clump at injury site and rupture-release thromboplastin
    • thromboplastin activates calcium and prothrombin to unite and form thrombin 
    • thrombin casues fibrinogen to change into fibrin
    • fibrin forms a network that traps RBC and forms a clot
  108. what are the 3 lines of defense
    • 1) skin, hairs
    • 2) inflammatory response, fever
    • 3) lymphocytes (killer T, plasma, memory B, and T cells)
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Biology 30s - Final Exam Part I
2014-06-16 12:58:02
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