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Biological maleness or femaleness, ascribed status
Social, Cultural, and Psychological traits, achieved status
What is the basis for gender division of labor?
Basis is social not physical
How does the Structural-Functional perspective explain gender roles?
Gender roles are biologically rooted.
What is the manifest function of gender roles?
Fulfilling society needs, procreation
What is the dysfunction of gender roles?
How does the conflict perspective explain gender roles?
Gender roles emerge out of oppression
Explain the concept of patriarchy.
social system of male dominance in which females are oppressed.
Explain linguistic sexism
words and patterns that ignore, devalue, or make sex objects of one sex.
Define Interpersonal behavior
Define Display Rules
Norms on social expression
How do gender stereotypes manifest in parental behaviors?
- Boys play mechanical toys, Girls play with dolls
- Boys get outside chores, Girls get inside
How do gender stereotypes manifest in peer interactions?
Pressure to conform to stereotypes, popularity and acceptance as reinforcer, rejection and teasing as punishment.
How are gender stereotypes manifested in education?
Boys are pressured to succeed, Girls have less incentives.
Are gender differences in aggression and nurturing behavior created biologically or socially?
How is aggressive behavior taught to boys?
How is nurturing behavior taught?
How are gender differences in agressive and nurturing behavior created overall?
Sexes get different treatment, norms, expectations and therefore develope gender differences.
What are pink collar occupations?
low paying non-manual, semi-skilled, held primarily by women.
What does comparable worth mean?
The worth of a job ought to reflect education, training, and skills.
Describe the pattern of gender segregation in 1. Blue & White collar jobs and 2. Professional occupations.
- 1. Blue and white collar jobs by positions
- 2. Professional Occupations by tier
What is contingent work?
Part time, temp, sub-contract work.
Who is most likely to hold contingent jobs? Why?
Women, prefer flexability, less full time jobs available.
What does the equal pay act of 1963 mandate?
same pay for same work.
Describe the extent of the current income gap between men and women.
Women earn 70 - 75% of what men do.
Three factors that contribute to the gender income gap?
Type of jobs, Glass Ceiling, Exclusion from formal network.
Define glass ceiling effect.
invisible barriers that limit women & minorities upward mobility.
Define Glass Escalator effect.
upward movement of men in female dominated occupations.
What do we mean by the Double Shift?
Women having dual responsibilities, wage earner and household workers on 2nd shift.
Describe gender issues of modern society faced by (1) Working class males (2) Middle class males
- 1. displacement (unemployment), difficult to fill traditional role, limited roles due to social expectation
- 2. Increased demands, increasing family responsibilities
relationships in which people live with committment, form an economic unit and care for any young & consider the group critical.
social network based on common ancestory, marriage, or adoption.
A residential economic unit
Define Family household.
Kinship plus household
Define Non-family household.
Living alone, roommates, co-habitating couples.
Name 6 significant changes in U.S. families.
- 1. Postponing marriage & child bearing
- 2. Increased cohabitation
- 3. Increased births to unmarried women
- 4. Increased single parent families
- 5. Increased employment of married moms
- 6. Higher rates of seperation and divorce
How has the economic background of the family changed since the 1950s?
- In the 50s, it was traditional family with husband as the breadwinner, wife as homemaker, and their dependant children.
- since then , loss of jobs & decline of wages, service jobs demand female labor, dual earner marriages, family values not changed.
What is the current state of family values?
Family values not changed since 50s.
Why are young people today more likely to postpone marriage?
cannot afford to marry, shortage of marriable black males, higher education, career uncertainties, cohabitation more common
Why is marital satisfaction more important today?
used to marry for economic / social reasons, now marry for emotional / personal reasons.
Examine social support by U.S. governments compared to other industrialized nations.
U.S. lags behind other nations.
What are two critical problems faced by working parents today?
Obtaining parental leaves, finding childcare.
What does the family and medical leave act of 1993 madate?
Maternity leave up to 12 weeks unpaid, for firms with 50+ employees, 40% work force not covered.
Who gets leave to care for sick children?
Only federal employees
What are two major concerns when searching for child care?
Cost & availability
Why is the lack of good child care a problem?
List six factors increasing the likelihood of divorce.
- 1. remarriage
- 2. age
- 3. education
- 4. unemployment / lower income
- 5. race
- 6. years married (first 3 years)
Five factors that contribute to high divorce rate in U.S.
- 1. increase in economic autonomy of women
- 2. Marriage for emotion not economy
- 3. Unfair division of domestic labor (chores)
- 4. no-fault divorce laws
- 5. Individualism more important than family
Discuss consequences of divorce for (1) ex-husbands (2) ex-wives (3) children.
- 1. increase in income, more emotional stress
- 2. decrease in income
- 3. intervening factors creates negative effects
Does divorce always negatively effect children?
Three factors that intervene the assumed casual relationship between divorced parents and its negative effects on children.
- 1. Economic hardships
- 2. Lack of parental supervision
- 3. Parental alienation syndrome
What percentage of single parent families are headed by women?
What are the causes of children developing behavior problems from divorce?
- 1. Economy
- 2. Lack of supervision
What is the remarriage rate today?
What is a blended family?
spouses and kids from previous and new marriages.