Biology 30s - Final Exam Part II

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KaZuma_t3
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277014
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Biology 30s - Final Exam Part II
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2014-06-17 09:04:52
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biology
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biology
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  1. specialized, interlocking, striated fibers
    cardiac muscle fibers
  2. extremely small in-between cardiac cells
    gap junctions
  3. loose sac surrounds the heart
    pericardium
  4. outer layer of heart
    epicardium
  5. myocardium
    thick middle layer of tissure
  6. endocardium
    inner lining of heart
  7. prevents blood flow between left and right sides of the heart
    septum
  8. tip of the heart
    apex
  9. the top two chambers that are thin walled
    atria
  10. bottom two chambers that are thick walled
    ventricles
  11. stress against the walls of the blood vessels or high blood pressure
    hypertension
  12. stress against the walls of the blood vessels or low blood pressure
    hypotension
  13. what are the functions of the circulatory system
    to transport substances throughout the body
  14. how are pulmonary and systemic circulation the same
    they are the same because they both carry blood
  15. how are pulmonary and systemic circulation different
    they are different because pulmonary circulation carries blood between the heart and lungs while systemic circulation carries blood between the body and heart
  16. what is the structure of an artery? (4)
    • intima (inner-most layer)
    • media (middle and thickest layer)
    • adventitia (outer layer)
    • lumen (small spacing)
  17. what is the structure of the vein (2)
    • thinner media 
    • larger lumen
  18. define capilllaries
    smallest blood vessels where gas exchange occcurs
  19. what is the structure of the heart (2)
    • cone shaped, size of a fist
    • made of cardiac fibres
  20. where is the location of the heart
    in-between the lungs in the middle of the chest
  21. where are the semilunar valves located
    before the pulmonary arteries and the aorta
  22. what are the layers of the heart muscle
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
  23. what is the purpose of the valves in the heart
    to allow blood to flow in one direction and not reverse
  24. the expansion and relaxation that can be felt in an artery when the ventricles contract
    pulse
  25. the amount of pressure exerted on the walls of blood vessels by the blood
    blood pressure
  26. what method do we use to measure blood pressure
    auscultatory method
  27. what is the device called that measures blood pressure
    sphygmomanometer
  28. the minimum pressure in the arteries at the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood
    diastolic pressure
  29. the peak pressure in the arteries at the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are contracting
    systolic pressure
  30. what is considered high blood pressure
    140/90
  31. what is considered low blood pressure
    90/60
  32. the pressure of the blood in the arteries is abnormally high
    high blood pressure
  33. the pressure of the blood in the arteries is abnormally low
    low blood pressure
  34. what is considered the optimum blood pressure reading
    120/80
  35. why is hypertension difficult to treat
    there are usually no symptoms
  36. what are 3 risk factors of hypertension
    • arteriosclerosis
    • obesity
    • lack of exercies
  37. what are 3 risk factors of hypotension
    • hormonal change
    • blood loss
    • dehydration
  38. 3 ways to control hypertension
    • diet and exercise
    • reduce stress
    • medication
  39. how does the heart beat
    controlled by a series of nerve impulses called conduction
  40. describe the steps in heart conduction
    • 1) wave contraction initiated by the sinoatrial node that causes both atria to contract
    • 2) impulses reach a mass of cardiac tissue called the atrioventricular node
    • 3) impulses are then picked up by the bundle of his
    • 4) bundle of his conduct the impulse through the right and left bundle branches to the purkinje fibres which causes the ventricles to contract
  41. 3 drugs that affect heart rate
    • nicotine
    • caffeine
    • cocaine
  42. what happens during the PQRST waves
    • P wave: atria contracts
    • QRS wave: ventricles contract
    • T wave: ventricles relax
  43. 3 common locations for a pulse
    • side of trachea
    • wrist
    • behind knee
  44. how do vasodilation and vasoconstriction play a part in maintaining homeostasis
    controls the blood flow
  45. what could happen if hypertension is left untreated (3)
    • damage to major organs and tissues
    • damage to eyes
    • stroke
  46. causes of varicose veins (5)
    • increased pressure in leg veins
    • damage to leg veins
    • venous insufficiency 
    • blood clots or blockage in deep veins
    • abnormal blood vessels
  47. what is the formula for max HR
    max HR = 220 - age
  48. abnormal hear sounds which means the AV and semilunar valves are not in sync or there is a leak in the septum
    heart murmur
  49. sudden intermittent change in heartbeat where there is misfiring of the cardioaccelerator or the vagus nerve and cardioaccelerator aren't working in conjunction
    heart palpitations
  50. inconsistent, abnormal heartbeat
    cardiac arrhthmia
  51. what does the right side of the heart pump
    deoxyginated blood
  52. what does the left side of the heart pump
    oxyginated blood
  53. explain the structure and function of capillaries
    • the smallest blood vessels
    • where gas exchange of COand O2 happen
  54. what is a lymph and what is the function of lymph
    • lymph are extracellular fluid
    • contains nutrients which is carried throughout the body
  55. what are 3 differences between arteries and veins
    • arteries have thicker muscle and elastic tissue
    • veins have a larger lumen
    • veins have one way valves
  56. what is the purpose of gap junctions
    make it possible for the heart to contract
  57. name the 3 components of the circulatory system
    • blood
    • blood vessels
    • heart
  58. define vasodilation
    the blood vessels get bigger rom the relaxing of smooth muscles
  59. define vasoconstriction
    the blood vessels get smaller from the contracting of smooth muscles
  60. explain the purpose of venous valves
    ensures that blood flows in one direction only
  61. explain the difference between physical and chemical digestion
    • physical digestion: is when food is broken down into smaller pieces physically
    • chemical digestion: is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller subunits by acid or enzyme
  62. where does physical digestion occur
    mouth by chewing
  63. where does chemical digestion occur
    mouth by amylase
  64. what is the function of the hard palate
    form speech sounds and to allow food to be chewed while breathing
  65. what is the function of the soft palate
    responsible for closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, closing off the airway
  66. what is the function of the epiglottis
    prevents food and liquids from entering the larynx and lungs which also temporarily stops breathing
  67. what are the 3 salivary glands
    • parotid
    • submandibular
    • sublingual
  68. what is another word for chewing
    mastication
  69. what is the moist mushy ball produced at the end of chewing and is swallowed
    bolus
  70. the tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach is called
    esophagus
  71. define peristalsis
    a series of muscular contractions that move substances through tubes
  72. teeth are composed of (4)
    • dentin
    • pulp
    • enamel
    • pariodontal ligament
  73. define dentin
    gives the tooth its shape
  74. define pulp
    tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves
  75. define enamel
    covers dentin and aids in chewing
  76. define pariodontal ligament
    anchors tooth to jaw
  77. what are the structures of the GI tract from mouth to anus
    • mouth 
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • liver
    • pancreas
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
    • rectum 
    • anus
  78. what is released during physical digestion of proteins in the mouth
    polypeptides
  79. what is released during physical digestion of fats in the mouth
    fat globules
  80. what are the layers of the esophagus (4)
    • lumen
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • smooth muscle
  81. how is heartburn caused
    when gastric juice moves its way up the esophagus from the stomach, burning the inside lining of the esophagus
  82. what are the parts of the stomach (6)
    • cardiac sphincter
    • cardia
    • fundis
    • body
    • pylorus
    • pyloric sphincter
  83. what are the folds in the lining of the stomach called
    rugae
  84. what is the function of rugae
    increases stomach capacity
  85. what does the stomach secrete
    • gastrin
    • mucus
  86. what are the components of gastric juice (5)
    • hydrochloric acid
    • pepsinogen
    • pepsin
    • renin
    • lipase
  87. what enzyme is pepsinogen converted into and what ph is needed for this conversion
    pepsinogen is converted into pepsin which requires a ph of 1-3
  88. what is the thick acidic liquid produced by the stomach
    chyme
  89. how is an ulcer formed
    a localized area of tissue layers become eroded
  90. parts of the small intestine (4)
    • duodenum
    • jejnum
    • ileum
    • ileocaecal valve
  91. what is the function of lacteal
    absorbs chylomicrons
  92. where is the bile produced
    liver
  93. components of pancreatic juice
    • sodium bicarbonate
    • pancreatic amylase
    • proteases
    • lipase
  94. parts of the large intestine (9)
    • caecum
    • appendix
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon 
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
    • rectum
    • anus
    • anal sphincter
  95. what are the 2 major functions of the large intestine
    • eliminate waste
    • re-absorption of water
  96. what are the 3 tasks of the digestion system
    • absorb nutrients
    • eliminate wastes
    • breaking down food into particles
  97. list 4 structures that may be affected by a cleft palate
    • central lining
    • splitting of the upper lip
    • missing hard palate
    • nose
  98. list 2 medical problems associated with a cleft palate
    • can't eat properly
    • self esteem issues
  99. explain the negative feedback mechanism that controls digestion (3)
    • increased acid slows down the release of gastrin
    • digestion of proteins uses up acid
    • release of gastrin is no longer inhibited
  100. what is the function of gastrin
    stimulates the secretion of HCL
  101. what is the function of secretin
    stimulates the release of pancreatic juice and stimulates the production of bile in the liver
  102. what is the function of cholecustokinin
    stimulates the release of bile from the gall bladder
  103. what is the function of gastric inhibitory peptide
    inhibits acid production and peristalsis in the stomach
  104. what is the function of the respiratory system
    to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body
  105. what is the function of external nares
    draws air into nasal cavity
  106. what is the function of nasal cavity (3)
    • warms the air before it goes to lungs
    • moistens air by picking up on fluid mucus
    • cleans the air by trapping dust
  107. what is the function of pharynx
    tube that is common to respiratory and digestive system
  108. what is the function of the larynx
    • boxlike structure found at the opening of the respiratory passage
    • vocal cords
  109. what is the function of trachea and bronchi
    • goes from the larynx to chest cavity
    • divides into left and right bronchi
  110. what is the function of bronchioles
    filled with air sacs called alveoli
  111. what is the function of alveoli
    where gas exchange occurs
  112. define external respiration
    breathing and exchange of gases
  113. define internal respiration
    • cellular respiration
    • glucose + 6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
  114. define cystic fibrosis
    a hereditary disease where thick mucus production and low immune system results in frequent lung infection
  115. what is the function of intercostal muscles
    causes ribs to move up and out

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