neuro 1

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Author:
shmvii
ID:
277033
Filename:
neuro 1
Updated:
2014-06-17 11:24:24
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  1. agnosia
    • inability to recognize familiar objects with one form of sensation
    • ex: visual agnosia
  2. akinesia
    inability to initiate movement
  3. Broca's aphasia
    aka ??
    describe
    mostly found with what pathology?
    • expressive aphasia
    • difficulty with verbal expression, but can comprehend
    • R hemiplegia (Broca's area is on the L)
  4. Wernicke's aphasia
    aka ??
    describe
    • receptive aphasia
    • disturbance in comprehension (auditory, reading, etc)
  5. apraxia
    inability to perform previously doable tasks even though there's no loss of strength, coordination, sensation, or comprehension

    lesion in cerebrum
  6. ideational apraxia
    pt can't plan an action, doesn't understand proper uses for familiar tools,
  7. ideomotor apraxia
    pt can't do a task on command but can do it spontaneously
  8. astereognosis
    inability to recognize objects by touch alone
  9. asynergia
    inability to move muscles together in a coordinated manner
  10. ataxia
    • uncoordinated movement, esp gait
    • due to lesions in cerebellum

    http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/disease-health/difference-between-ataxia-and-apraxia/ --- for diff btwn apraxia and ataxia
  11. athetosis
    • slow, invol, worm-like, twisting motions
    • seen in CP
  12. causalgia
    • painful burning sensation
    • often seen w CRPS type 1
  13. Cheyne-Stokes respiration
    describe
    10-60 seconds of apnea, then gradually increasing then decreasing depth and frequency of breaths
  14. Cheyne Stokes respiration
    from what brain injury?
    • depression of frontal lobe and diencephalic function
    • seen w TBI and CHF
  15. chorea
    • rapid, invol, jerky motions
    • seen with Huntington's
  16. clonus
    • rhythmic oscillation of a muscle in response to sustained stretch
    • 2/2 UMNL
  17. decerebrate rigidity
    • extension of UE and LE
    • 2/2 injury at brain stem
  18. decorticate rigidity
    • flexion of UE with contraction of LE
    • seen in comatose pts with lesions above the superior colliculus
  19. dysmetria
    • inabliity to judge distances
    • esp in cerebellar dysfunction
  20. Guillan Barre syndrome
    • polyneuropathy, hits the PNS
    • presents distal to proximal
  21. herpes zoster / shingles
    • painful inflammation of psterior root ganglion
    • caused by a virus
    • results in formation of vesicles (fluid filled sacs) along a nerve/dermatome
  22. Horner's syndrome
    describe
    seen with stroke involving which arteries?
    • ptosis of eyelid, constriction of pupil, lack of sweat on ipsilat face
    • ant inf or post inf cerebellar arteries
  23. morton's neuroma
    excessive pronation --> compression btwn 3rd and 4th metatarsals --> nerve enlarges --> metatarsalgia
  24. reciprocal inhibition
    inhibition of muscles antagonistic to those being facilitated
  25. Romberg's sign
    loss of balance in standing when eyes are closed
  26. somatagnosia
    lack of awarenss of rel of one's own body parts or those of others
  27. vegetative state
    • deep coma with abnormal posturing
    • if it persists, pt may have no rehab potential
  28. homonymous hemianopsia
    caused by damage to what?
    describe?
    • caused by damage to contralat optic tract 
    • deficit of R or L half of both eyes
    • injury to R side of brain hurts the L field of vision, so now the pt can only see out of the R side of her eyes 
    • named for the side that she can't see out of
  29. bitemporal hemianopsia
    injury where? 
    aka?
    describe
    • optic chiasm
    • tunnel vision
    • loss of temporal/peripheral visual fields

    (binasal -- can't see the medial fields)
  30. monocular blindness
    damage where?
    • blind in one eye
    • damage to optic nerve

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