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The use of station warning lights, tool boards and jidohka devices in the application of Lean accomplish which of these principles?
A. Pilferage Minimization
B. Visual Factory
C. Management Awareness
D. Operator Attentiveness
Answer:B. Visual Factory

A Lean Principle that addresses efficiency by the process worker is called____________________?
A. Visual Factory
B. Supervising
C. Training
D. Standardizing
Answer:D. Standardizing

While management of a company must set the stage for all improvement efforts, which of these 5 S’s is primarily driven by management?
A. Straighten
B. Sort
C. Shine
D. Sustain
Answer:D. Sustain

As part of a Visual Factory plan __________ cards are created and utilized to identify areas in need of cleaning and organization.
A. Kanban
B. Kaizen
C. PokeYoke
D. WhoSai
Answer:A. Kanban

The use of Kanbans work best with pull systems for determining the timing of which products or services are produced.
A. True
B. False
Answer:A. True

When a Belt applies the practice of PokaYoke to a project challenge she is attempting to make certain the activity is _______________ .
A. Well documented
B. Removed from the line
C. Mistake proofed
D. Highly visible
Answer:C. Mistake proofed

The Lean Principle action in the 5S approach that deals with having those items needed regularly at hand and those items need less regularly stored out of the way is known as ___________.
A. Shining
B. Standardizing
C. Sustaining
D. Sorting
Answer:D. Sorting

SPC on the outputs is more preferred than SPC on the inputs when implementing SPC for your process.
A. True
B. False
Answer:B. False

Significant variation in process performance is a consequence of several causes that can be classified using which of the terminologies shown. (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. Common
B. Random
C. Uneducated
D. Special
E. Vital
 Answer: A,D
 A. Common
 D. Special

When it comes to Control one of the most effective means of eliminating defects is to_________________ .
A. Train personnel often and thoroughly
B. Keep a Six Sigma project going on the process at all times
C. Design defect prevention into the product
D. Have each process consist of no more than five steps
Answer: C. Design defect prevention into the product

A periodic time frame can be used to arrange for Control Limit and Center Line calculations with good SPC implementation in a process.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The data on SPC charts are typically constructed such that they have the most recent data pointon the right hand side.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Which statement(s) describe an undesirable situation when implementing SPC?
A. The lower Control Limit for the R chart is equal to zero
B. Attempt to use SPC for tracking transaction times at a warehouse
C. A process is in Statistical Control before implementation of SPC
D. The Control Limits are wider than the customer specification limits
Answer: D. The Control Limits are wider than the customer specification limits

If a process has Outliers which pair of charts is most preferable if subgroups will exist for the Continuous Data?
A. Individual—Moving Range
B. XbarR Charts
C. XbarS Charts
D. nP and P Charts
Answer: B. XbarR Charts

After a Belt has put data through the smoothing process which chart would be used to look for trends in the data?
A. Moving Average Chart
B. MultiVari Chart
C. X bar Chart
D. Pareto Chart
Answer: A. Moving Average Chart

A Belt concludes a Lean Six Sigma project with the creation of a Control Plan. At what point can the Control Plan be closed?
A.Never, a Control Plan is a living document
B. As soon as the Champion signs off
C. Within 30 days of the LSS project review team meeting
D. After the project has been presented at the recognition event
Answer: A.Never, a Control Plan is a living document

When analyzing a data set we frequently graph one metric as a function of another. If the slope ofthe Correlation line is 2.5 we would say the two metrics are ___________ correlated?
A. Positively
B. Not
C. Negatively
D. None
Answer: C. Negatively

Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR) is best used when which of these are applicable? (Note: Thereare 3 correct answers).
A. Nonlinear relationships between the inputs X’s and output Y
B. Uncertainty in the slope of the linear relationship between an X and a Y
C. Relationships between Y (output) and more than one X (Input)
D. Preventing the use of a Designed Experiment if unnecessary
E. We assume that the X’s are independent of each other
 Answer: C,D,E
 C. Relationships between Y (output) and more than one X (Input)
 D. Preventing the use of a Designed Experiment if unnecessary
 E. We assume that the X’s are independent of each other

Fractional Factorial designs for an experimental approach are used when ____________ about the multiple metric interaction in a process.
A. Much is known
B. Little is known
C. We don’t care
D. Data exists
Answer: B. Little is known

A Belt will occasionally do a quick experiment referred to as an OFAT which stands for____________________.
A. Only a Few Are Tested
B. Opposite Factors Affect Technique
C. One Factor At a Time
D. Ordinary Fractional Approach Technique
Answer: C. One Factor At a Time

Which statement(s) are correct for the Regression Analysis shown here? (Note: There are 2correct answers).
A. This Regression is an example of a Multiple Linear Regression.
B. This Regression is an example of Cubic Regression.
C. %Cu explains the majority of the process variance in heat flux.
D. Thickness explains over 80% of the process variance in heat flux.
E. The number of Residuals in this Regression Analysis is 26.
Answer: A,D
 A. This Regression is an example of a Multiple Linear Regression.
 D. Thickness explains over 80% of the process variance in heat flux.

The Regression Model for an observed value of Y contains the term ?o which represents the Y axis intercept when X = 0.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Which statement(s) are true about the Fitted Line Plot shown here? (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. When Reactant increases, the Energy Consumed increases.
B. The slope of the equation is a positive 130.5.
C. The predicted output Y is close to 18 when the Reactant level is set to 6.
D. Over 85 % of the variation of the Energy Consumed is explained by the Reactant via this Linear Regression.
Answer: C,D
 C. The predicted output Y is close to 18 when the Reactant level is set to 6.
 D. Over 85 % of the variation of the Energy Consumed is explained by the Reactant via this Linear Regression

After reviewing the Capability Analysis shown here select the statement(s) that are untrue.
A. The process is properly assumed to be a Normal process
B. The Mean of the process moving range is 1.78
C. The process is out of Control
D. This Capability Analysis used subgroupsE. Majority of the dimensional values are outside of the tolerance than within
Answer: A. The process is properly assumed to be a Normal process

The actual experimental response data varied somewhat from what a Belt had predicted them to be. This is the result of which of these?
A. Inefficiency of estimates
B. Residuals
C. Confounded data
D. Gap Analysis
Answer: B. Residuals

Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR) is best used when which of these are applicable? (Note: Thereare 3 correct answers).
A. Nonlinear relationships between the inputs X’s and output Y
B. Uncertainty in the slope of the linear relationship between an X and a Y
C. Relationships between Y (output) and more than one X (Input)
D. Preventing the use of a Designed Experiment if unnecessary
E. We assume that the X’s are independent of each other
 Answer: C,D,E
 C. Relationships between Y (output) and more than one X (Input)
 D. Preventing the use of a Designed Experiment if unnecessary
 E. We assume that the X’s are independent of each other

The generation of a Regression Equation is justified when we _____________. (Note: There are4 correct answers).
A. Expect the relationship to be Linear between the output and inputs
B. Know that there is a nonlinear relationship between output and input(s)
C. Need to understand how to control a process output by controlling the input(s)
D. Experience several process defects and have no other way to fix them
E. When it is very expensive or too late to measure the output
Answer: A,C,D,E
 A. Expect the relationship to be Linear between the output and inputs
 C. Need to understand how to control a process output by controlling the input(s)
 D. Experience several process defects and have no other way to fix them
 E. When it is very expensive or too late to measure the output

Which statement(s) are correct for the Regression Analysis shown here? (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. This Regression is an example of a Multiple Linear Regression.
B. This Regression is an example of Cubic Regression.
C. %Cu explains the majority of the process variance in heat flux.
D. Thickness explains over 80% of the process variance in heat flux.E. The number of Residuals in this Regression Analysis is 26.
Answer: A,D
A. This Regression is an example of a Multiple Linear Regression.
D. Thickness explains over 80% of the process variance in heat flux.E. The number of Residuals in this Regression Analysis is 26.

The Regression Model for an observed value of Y contains the term ?o which represents the Yaxis intercept when X = 0.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Which statement(s) are true about the Fitted Line Plot shown here? (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. When Reactant increases, the Energy Consumed increases.
B. The slope of the equation is a positive 130.5.
C. The predicted output Y is close to 18 when the Reactant level is set to 6.
D. Over 85 % of the variation of the Energy Consumed is explained by the Reactant via this Linea Regression.
Answer: C,D
C. The predicted output Y is close to 18 when the Reactant level is set to 6.
D. Over 85 % of the variation of the Energy Consumed is explained by the Reactant via this LinearRegression.

Select all the statements that are true after reviewing the Capability Analysis shown here. (Note:There are 4 correct answers).
A. The process is out of Control.
B. The process is properly assumed to be a Normal process.
C. The Mean of the process moving range is 1.78.
D. This Capability Analysis used subgroups.
E. Majority of the dimensional values are outside of the tolerance than within.
Answer: B,C,D,E
 B. The process is properly assumed to be a Normal process.
 C. The Mean of the process moving range is 1.78.
 D. This Capability Analysis used subgroups.
 E. Majority of the dimensional values are outside of the tolerance than within.

A Six Sigma tool that helps to screen factors by using graphical techniques to logically subgroupmultiple discrete X's plotted against a continuous Y is known as a _____________Chart.
A. SIPOC
B. MultiVari
C. Box Plot
D. Whisker
Answer: B. MultiVari

A primary benefit of using a MultiVari Chart is it provides a visual presentation of twoway interactions.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

__________ Distributions occur when data comes from several sources that are supposed to bethe same yet are not.
A. Skewed
B. Bimodal
C. Gaussian
D. Tripeaked
Answer: A. Skewed

Bias in Sampling is an error due to lack of independence among random samples or due to systematic sampling procedures.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

To draw inferences about a sample population being studied by modeling patterns of data in a waythat accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations is known as____________________.
A. Influential Analysis
B. Inferential Statistics
C. Physical Modeling
D. Sequential Inference
Answer: B. Inferential Statistics

For a Normal Distribution the Mean, Median and Mode are the same data point.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

When two Inputs have an impact on the Output together yet seem to have no or little impact on their own this is called a/an ________________.
A. Interaction
B. Oddity
C. Coincidence
D. Impossibility
Answer: A. Interaction

Hypothesis Testing can save time and help avoid high costs of experimental efforts by using existing data.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

It is a Type II error if we decide to reject the Null Hypothesis when it is actually true.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

A Belt experienced an Alpha of .05 and a Beta of .10 and knew these are the most common risk levels when running a Statistical test.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Inferential Statistics is largely about Significance. There are both Practical and _______________Significance to consider during an analysis of data in a Lean Six Sigma project.
A. Problematic
B. Impractical
C. Usable
D. Statistical
Answer: D. Statistical

The Central Limit Theorem helps us understand the ___________ we are taking and is the basis for using sampling to estimate population parameters.
A. Analysis
B. Kurtosis
C. Risk
D. Route
Answer: C. Risk

Hypothesis Tests determine the probabilities of differences between observed data and the hypothesis being solely due to _________ based on the result of the Pvalues.
A. Human error
B. Measurement error
C. Shift differences
D. Chance
Answer: D. Chance

The Alpha level of a test (level of significance) represents the yardstick against which Pvalues are measured and the Null Hypothesis is rejected if the Pvalue is which of these?
A. Less than the Alpha level.
B. Greater than the Alpha level.
C. Greater than the Beta and Alpha level.
D. Less than one minus Alpha.
E. Less than the power of one minus Beta.
Answer: A. Less than the Alpha level.

A 1Sample ttest is used when you want to compare the Median of one distribution to a target value.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

When a Belt is analyzing sample data she should keep in mind that 95% of Normally Distributed data is within +/ 2 Standard Deviations from the Mean.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The Standard Deviation for the distribution of Means is called the ___________ and approaches zero as the sample size reaches 30.
A. Standard Error
B. Mean Deviation
C. Mean Spread
D. Mean Error
Answer: A. Standard Error

Due to excessive pollution, GREEN Solutions Inc. is considering subsidizing public transportationto work for its employees. According to the manager it takes an average weekday commute of 39minutes with a Standard Deviation of 7 minutes for the employees to get to work while they usetheir personal vehicles for their office commute while the management set a policy of not morethan 40 minutes for their daily oneway commute. A survey conducted one day on 70 employeesshowed an average of 34 minutes commuting time using the metro public transportation systemwith a Standard Deviation of 21 minutes. Assuming a Normal Distribution for the commute times by either personal or public transportation, which of these is true?
A. The probability that they would arrive on time using personal vehicles is much higher than usingthe metro public transportation system (MPTS)
B. The probability that they would arrive on time using the MPTS is much higher than using their personal vehicles
C. The two probabilities are about the same excepting in one case the consistency is higher than the other
D. We need to compile more data around weekends to incorporate for traffic differences
E. When Standard Deviation is higher the probability goes down and so the MPTS is worse
Answer: B. The probability that they would arrive on time using the MPTS is much higher than using their personal vehicles

According to a manager it takes an average weekday commute of 39 minutes with a Standard Deviation of 7 minutes for the employees to get to work when they use their personal vehicles for their office commute while management set a policy of not more than 40 minutes for their daily oneway commute. A survey conducted one day on 70 employees showed an average of 34minutes commuting time using the metro public transportation system with a Standard Deviation of21 minutes. For the employees choosing to increase their chances to come on time using personal transportation their variation should be reduced to ___________?
A. 1 minute
B. 6 minutes
C. 3.5 minutes
D. Eliminate it to 0.0 minutes
Answer: C. 3.5 minutes

According to a manager it takes an average weekday commute of 39 minutes with a StandardDeviation of 7 minutes for the employees to get to work while they use their personal vehicles fortheir office commute while the management set a policy of not more than 40 minutes for their dailyoneway commute. A survey conducted one day on 70 employees showed an average of 34minutes commuting time using the metro public transportation system with a Standard Deviation of21 minutes. If the Standard Deviation is uncontrollable then the other option to increase the probability of coming in on time via personal vehicles to work could be ____________?
A. Increase the average time of commute
B. Maintain the average time of commute and change route to work
C. Reduce average commute time to work by departing earlier
D. Change policy at work and request for flexible times based on location
Answer: C. Reduce average commute time to work by departing earlier

Which of the following is used to test the significance for the analysis of a Variance Table?
A. t Test
B. F Test
C. Chi Square Test
D. Acid Test
Answer: B. F Test

Nonparametric testing is done when which of these are applicable? (Note: There are 3 correct answers).
A. When the traditional t tests don’t produce the results we need
B. A Hypothesis Test for the Median of the population is in question
C. It does not require data to come from Normally Distributed populations
D. They look at the Median rather than the Mean of populations
E. When there are no parameters to measure in the process
Answer: B,C,D
 B. A Hypothesis Test for the Median of the population is in question
 C. It does not require data to come from Normally Distributed populations
 D. They look at the Median rather than the Mean of populations

The MannWhitney Test is used to test if the Means for two samples are different.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

Contingency Tables are used to perform which of these functions?
A. Illustrate onetail proportions
B. Analyze the "what if" scenario
C. Contrast the Outliers under the tail
D. Compare more than two sample proportions with each other
Answer: D. Compare more than two sample proportions with each other

For the data shown here a Belt suspects the three grades are supplying the same results. Which statement(s) are true for proper Hypothesis Testing?
A. The most appropriate Central Tendency to test is the Means
B. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the Levene’s test
C. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the ANOVA test
D. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the Mood’s Median test
Answer: D. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the Mood’s Median test

A Six Sigma tool that helps to screen factors by using graphical techniques to logically subgroup multiple discrete X's plotted against a continuous Y is known as a________________________Chart.
A. SIPOC
B. MultiVari
C. Box Plot
D. Whisker
Answer: B. MultiVari

A primary benefit of using a MultiVari Chart is it provides a visual presentation of twoway interactions.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Skewed, or Mixed, Distributions occur when data comes from several sources that are supposed to be the same yet are not.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

When two Inputs have an impact on the Output together yet seem to have no or little impact on their own this is called a/an ________________.
A. Interaction
B. Oddity
C. Coincidence
D. Impossibility
Answer: A. Interaction

To draw inferences about a sample population being studied by modeling patterns of data in a waythat accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations is known as____________________.
A. Influential Analysis
B. Inferential Statistics
C. Physical Modeling
D. Sequential Inference
Answer: B. Inferential Statistics

The perfect sample size is the minimum number of data points required to provide exactly 6%overlap or risk if one wants a 95% confidence level.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

Bias in Sampling is an error due to lack of independence among random samples or due to systematic sampling procedures.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The Central Limit Theorem helps us understand the ___________ we are taking and is the basis for using sampling to estimate population parameters.
A. Analysis
B. Kurtosis
C. Risk
D. Route
Answer: C. Risk

Hypothesis Testing can help avoid high costs of experimental efforts by using existing data.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Hypothesis Tests determine the probabilities of differences between observed data and the hypothesis being solely due to chance. This is determined based on the result of the______________.
A. Random acts
B. Pvalues
C. Standard Deviations
D. Rvalues
Answer: B. Pvalues

It is a Type I error if we reject the Null Hypothesis when it is actually true.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Inferential Statistics is largely about Significance. There are both Practical and _______________Significance to consider during an analysis of data in a Lean Six Sigma project.
A. Problematic
B. Impractical
C. Usable
D. Statistical
Answer: D. Statistical

Having an Alpha of .05 and a Beta of .10 are the most common risk levels when running a Statistical test.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The Alpha level of a test (level of significance) represents the yardstick against which Pvalues are measured and the Null Hypothesis is rejected if the Pvalue is which of these?
A. Less than the Alpha level.
B. Greater than the Alpha level.
C. Greater than the Beta and Alpha level.
D. Less than one minus Alpha.
E. Less than the power of one minus Beta.
Answer: A. Less than the Alpha level.

A 1Sample ttest is used when you want to compare the Median of one distribution to a target value.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

A 1Sample ttest is used to compare an expected population Mean to a target.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Unequal Variances can be the result of differing types of distributions.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Due to excessive pollution, GREEN Solutions Inc. is considering subsidizing public transportationto work for its employees. According to the manager it takes an average weekday commute of 39minutes with a Standard Deviation of 7 minutes for the employees to get to work while they usetheir personal vehicles for their office commute while the management set a policy of not morethan 40 minutes for their daily oneway commute. A survey conducted one day on 70 employeesshowed an average of 34 minutes commuting time using the metro public transportation systemwith a Standard Deviation of 21 minutes. Assuming a Normal Distribution for the commute times by either personal or public transportation, which of these is true?
A. The probability that they would arrive on time using personal vehicles is much higher than using the metro public transportation system (MPTS)
B. The probability that they would arrive on time using the MPTS is much higher than using their personal vehicles
C. The two probabilities are about the same excepting in one case the consistency is higher than the other
D. We need to compile more data around weekends to incorporate for traffic differences
E. When Standard Deviation is higher the probability goes down and so the MPTS is worse
Answer: B

According to a manager it takes an average weekday commute of 39 minutes with a StandardDeviation of 7 minutes for the employees to get to work when they use their personal vehicles fortheir office commute while management set a policy of not more than 40 minutes for their dailyoneway commute. A survey conducted one day on 70 employees showed an average of 34minutes commuting time using the metro public transportation system with a Standard Deviation of21 minutes. For the employees choosing to increase their chances to come on time using personal transportation their variation should be reduced to ___________?
A. 1 minute
B. 6 minutes
C. 3.5 minutes
D. Eliminate it to 0.0 minutes
Answer: C. 3.5 minutes

According to a manager it takes an average weekday commute of 39 minutes with a StandardDeviation of 7 minutes for the employees to get to work while they use their personal vehicles fortheir office commute while the management set a policy of not more than 40 minutes for their dailyoneway commute. A survey conducted one day on 70 employees showed an average of 34minutes commuting time using the metro public transportation system with a Standard Deviation of21 minutes. If the Standard Deviation is uncontrollable then the other option to increase theprobability of coming in on time via personal vehicles to work could be ____________?
A. Increase the average time of commute
B. Maintain the average time of commute and change route to work
C. Reduce average commute time to work by departing earlier
D. Change policy at work and request for flexible times based on location
 Answer: C
 C. Reduce average commute time to work by departing earlier

Which of the following is used to test the significance for the analysis of a Variance Table?
A. t Test
B. F Test
C. Chi Square Test
D. Acid Test
Answer: B. F Test

Nonparametric testing is done when which of these are applicable? (Note: There are 3 correct answers).
A. When the traditional t tests don’t produce the results we need
B. A Hypothesis Test for the Median of the population is in question
C. It does not require data to come from Normally Distributed populations
D. They look at the Median rather than the Mean of populations
E. When there are no parameters to measure in the process
Answer: B,C,D
 B. A Hypothesis Test for the Median of the population is in question
 C. It does not require data to come from Normally Distributed populations
 D. They look at the Median rather than the Mean of populations

The MannWhitney Test is used to test if the Means for two samples are different.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

Contingency Tables are used to do which of these? (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. Illustrate onetail proportions.
B. Compare more than two sample proportions with each other.
C. Contrast the Outliers under the tail.
D. Analyze the "what if" scenario.
E. Applicable to data that is Attribute in nature
Answer: B,E
B. Compare more than two sample proportions with each other.
E. Applicable to data that is Attribute in nature

For the data shown here a Belt suspects the three grades are supplying the same results. Which statement(s) are true for proper Hypothesis Testing?
A. The most appropriate Central Tendency to test is the Means
B. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the Levene’s test
C. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the ANOVA test
D. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the Mood’s Median test
 Answer: D
 D. An appropriate test to test Central Tendency is the Mood’s Median test

The higher the sigma level of a process the better the performance.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The Six Sigma methodology had its origins at __________________ in the late 1980’s when William Smith coined the name for quality related work being done there.
A. Motorola
B. Allied Signal
C. General Electric
D. Honeywell
Answer: A. Motorola

Training cost is $4,000 and a project required an initial investment of $30,000. If the project yields monthly savings of $2,000 beginning after 3 months, what is the payback period in months (before money costs and taxes)?
A. 10
B. 20
C. 27
D. 33
Answer: B. 20

Lean Six Sigma’s general approach to solving significant challenges related to a process is called_________________.
A. DOE
B. SIPOC
C. DMAIC
D. FMEA
Answer: C. DMAIC

Voice of the Customer is a Lean Six Sigma technique to determine ____________________attributes of a product or service.
A. At least 6
B. The profitable
C. CriticaltoQuality
D. The majority of the
Answer: C. CriticaltoQuality

Those who are trained to the skill levels of a Black Belt are typically utilized to apply Lean Six Sigma methodologies what percentage of their time?
A. 25%
B. 50%
C. 75%
Answer: D. 100%

A process can be defined as a repetitive and systematic series of steps or activities where inputs are modified or assembled to achieve a customer desired result.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Customers make a purchase decision based on a number of factors. In Lean Six Sigma we refer to these decision points as CTQ’s or as ____________________.
A. Criticaltoquality
B. Conscious thought qualities
C. Conspicuous time quandaries
D. Cost of the quantity
Answer: A. Criticaltoquality

Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) can be classified as Tangible (Visible) Costs and Hidden Costs.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

An employee of ACME Corporation noticed that every loan application that gets approved is copied four times and is stored in different locations in the company for no apparent reason. This would be an example of __________________.
A. Internal Failure Costs
B. Appraisal Costs
C. External Failure Costs
D. Prevention Costs
Answer: A. Internal Failure Costs

The 80:20 rule is associated with which of these tools?
A. Pareto Chart
B. Simon's CrossFunctional Tool
C. SIPOC
D. Framing Tool
Answer: A. Pareto Chart

One of the metrics commonly used in Lean Six Sigma is DPU. This acronym stands for___________________.
A. Deferred planned usage
B. Defects per unit
C. Decreased production utilization
D. Downtime per unit
Answer: B. Defects per unit

According to the definition of Rolled Throughput Yield which of these items best describe the purpose of RTY?
A. A function of Y=f(x)
B. Accounts for losses due to rework and scrap
C. Isolates the increase throughput
D. Determines incremental Growth
Answer: B. Accounts for losses due to rework and scrap

What is the Cycle Time, in seconds, for a process having a Throughput of 7,200 units per hour?
A. 0.5
B. 2
C. 4
D. 10
Answer: A. 0.5

The following Business Case is constructed properly.“In business unit A there are too many flashlight returns and flashlight sales have decreased by 25 percent.”
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

To create standardization of financial benefit calculations project savings are typically based on savings over what period of time?
A. 6 months
B. 12 months
C. 24 months
D. The remainder of the calendar year
E. The remainder of the fiscal year
Answer: B. 12 months

The essence of Lean is to concentrate effort on removing waste while improving process flow to achieve speed and agility at lower cost.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Lean had its origins in the development and practice of the ___________ Production System.
A. Honda
B. Toyota
C. Ford
D. Motorola
Answer: B. Toyota

Lean removes many forms of ______________ so Six Sigma can focus on reducing_______________.
A. Waste, variability
B. Inventory, defects
C. Waste, cost
D. Movement, variation
Answer: A. Waste, variability

Which element of waste best describes "the unnecessary movement of materials and/or goods"?
A. Over processing
B. Motion
C. Conveyance
D. Correction
Answer: C. Conveyance

Which element of waste best describes "the cost of an idle resource"?
A. Waiting
B. Motion
C. Inventory
D. Correction
Answer: A. Waiting

The proper functioning of a Visual Factory is dependent upon which of these?
A. Technically skilled workers
B. Work space with active 5S
C. Availability of visual tools
D. Breakthrough projects
Answer: C. Availability of visual tools

Lean focuses on the sequence of activities and work required to produce a product or a service.This flow is called a ___________________.
A. Valueadd Flow
B. Production Map
C. Value Stream
D. Operating Procedure
Answer: C. Value Stream

Lean Enterprise is based on the premise that anywhere work is being done which of these is also occurring?
A. Money is being spent
B. Waste is being generated
C. People are producing value added product
D. Waste is being eliminated
Answer: B. Waste is being generated

When constructing a Fishbone Diagram using the ________ approach is the most classic arrangement.
A. 6M
B. 4M
C. 5M
D. Alphabetical
Answer: A. 6M

The 5 Why Analysis is only useful if the possible independent variable can be broken down into five possible causes.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

The purpose of a Process Map is to identify the complexity of the process and to assist in identifying critical steps in the process.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The very best way to begin an effort to map a process is to do which of these?
A. Interview the process owner
B. Interview the manager of the department
C. Walk the actual process from beginning to end
D. Take pictures of the factory floor at each shift
Answer: C. Walk the actual process from beginning to end

The XY Diagram is a tool used to identify/collate potential X's and assess their relative impact on multiple Y's.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The term FMEA is an abbreviation for Failures Measure Effective Automation.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

When utilizing Statistics the population is defined as a collection of all the individual data points of interest.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Which of these is Discrete data?
A. Train arrived at 4:17 pm.
B. Race car consumed 23 gallons of fuel.
C. Of the 42 people on the bus, 12 went into the station.
D. It took 3 hours and 32 minutes to complete the marathon.
 Answer: C
 C. Of the 42 people on the bus, 12 went into the station.

Nominal Scale data consists of names, labels or categories and cannot be arranged in any mathematical ordering scheme. Complex arithmetic functions cannot be easily applied to Nominal Data:
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

When looking at a distribution graph, the Mean is defined as the __________.
A. Average based on the sample size
B. Aggression measured
C. Total sample size
D. Measurement based off a quarter of the sample size
Answer: A. Average based on the sample size

The difference between the largest observation and the smallest observation in the data set is known as the _______________.
A. Breadth
B. Range
C. Spread
D. Median
Answer: B. Range

The Empirical Rule is important because it provides an estimate of the probability of an event occurring depending on the Standard Deviation from the Mean.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The Z score is a measure of the distance in Standard Deviations of a sample data point from the Median of the sample population.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

Longterm Data represents all the variation that one can expect within the subject process.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

A Belt gathered the following defect data for a shoe production line and wanted to assemble it into a Pareto Chart. The correct order from left to right in the chart would be:
Data:
Cutting 38
Forming 17
Stitching 56
Sealing 42
A. Forming, Sealing, Cutting, Stitching
B. Sealing, Stitching, Forming, Cutting
C. Stitching, Sealing, Cutting, Forming
D. Forming, Cutting, Sealing, Stitching
Answer: C. Stitching, Sealing, Cutting, Forming

Measurement error is defined as the effect of all sources of measurement variability that caused an observed or measured value to deviate from the __________.
A. Standard Deviation
B. Mean
C. Median
D. True value
Answer: D. True value

Measurement System Analysis is a procedure used to quantify variation of the method or system used for taking measurements.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The Accuracy of a Measurement System addresses _________________.
A. Stability, Bias & Linearity
B. Repeatability & Reproducibility
C. Stability & Sensitivity
D. Precision & Sensitivity
Answer: A. Stability, Bias & Linearity

As a type of measurement error, Linearity describes a change in accuracy through the expected operating range of the measurement instrument.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The deviation of the measured value from the actual value is known as _____________.
A. Bias
B. Linearity
C. Repeatability
D. Movement
Answer: A. Bias

The ability to repeat the same measurement obtained with one measurement instrument used several times by one appraiser while measuring the identical characteristic on the same part is known as ____________.
A. Repeatability
B. Bias
C. Linearity
D. Reproducibility
Answer: A. Repeatability

If a Histogram displays two peaks the distribution would likely be _____________.
A. Transformed
B. Multiskewed
C. Bimodal
D. Biattribute
Answer: C. Bimodal

Process Capability is a function of which of these?
A. Customer requirements
B. Process performance
C. Output over time
D. All of these answers are correct
Answer: D. All of these answers are correct

Which of these are correct if Cpk Upper is 2.0 and Cpk Lower is 1.0?
A. The process is not stable.
B. The process is shifted to the left.
C. Cpk must be reported as 1.0.
D. The process Mean is 1.5.
Answer: C. Cpk must be reported as 1.0.

A Stable process is a process whose output is consistent over time. A primary tool used to analyze Stability would be a ________________.
A. Data Forward Plot
B. Bag Plot
C. Min/Max Plot
D. Time Series Plot
Answer: D. Time Series Plot

Conducting a viable Capability Analysis using Attribute Data one must obtain a fairly large sample set to be statistically sound.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

This output is what type of advanced Capability Analysis?
A. Continuous
B. Binomial
C. Poisson
D. Discreet
E. DPU
Answer: B. Binomial

Fractional Factorial designs for an experimental approach are used when ____________ about the multiple metric interaction in a process.
A. Much is known
B. Little is known
C. We don’t care
D. Data exists
Answer: B. Little is known

Some of the approaches used in Lean include station warning lights, tool boards and jidohka devices in order that which of these apply?
A. Workers do not utilize individual methods of cleaning
B. Problems are made highly visible
C. Work stoppages are documented properly
D. Lessen the amount of employee pilferage
Answer: B. Problems are made highly visible

Examples of a Visual Factory include which of these? (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. White outlines on floor for proper inventory placement
B. Documented procedures with a numerical outline
C. Bad/Good indications of gauge readings with red and green outlines
D. Implementing a defect inspection device
Answer: A,C
A. White outlines on floor for proper inventory placement
C. Bad/Good indications of gauge readings with red and green outlines

While management of a company must set the stage for all improvement efforts, which of these 5S’s is primarily driven by management?
A. Straighten
B. Sort
C. Shine
D. Sustain
Answer: D. Sustain

As part of a Visual Factory plan Kanban cards are created and utilized to identify areas in need of cleaning and organization.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

Kanbans work best with pull systems for determining the timing of which products or services are produced.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The practice of utilizing PokaYoke is also known as ________________.
A. Thorough integration
B. Mistake proofing
C. On site inspection
D. Lean controls
Answer: B. Mistake proofing

Standardized work instructions apply to which resource in the process of interest?
A. People
B. Machines
C. Supervision
D. Engineering
Answer: A. People

Examples of Mistake Proofing for a laptop computer include which of these? (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. USB connection for a mouse
B. Open/Close button for CD Drive
C. Battery alignment pins
D. On/Off switch for computer
Answer: A,C
 A. USB connection for a mouse
 C. Battery alignment pins

Significant variation in process performance is a consequence of several causes that can be classified using terminologies shown here. (Note: There are 2 correct answers).
A. Common
B. Random
C. Uneducated
D. Special
E. Vital

The reason(s) for not marking the customer Specification Limits (SL) on a Control Chart is which of these? (Note: There are 4 correct answers).
A. Process control teams should not control a process based on SLs
B. Displaying the SLs on a Control Chart sends a wrong signal toward process control
C. Marking the SLs on a Control Chart is against the principle of charting
D. By marking the SLs, one can confuse the operator as to what limits are critical
E. By using mere Control Limits the process only needs to be in Statistical Control
Answer: A,B,D,E
 A. Process control teams should not control a process based on SLs
 B. Displaying the SLs on a Control Chart sends a wrong signal toward process control
 D. By marking the SLs, one can confuse the operator as to what limits are critical
 E. By using mere Control Limits the process only needs to be in Statistical Control

A periodic time frame can be used to arrange for Control Limit and Center Line calculations with good SPC implementation in a process.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

SPC charts typically have the most recent data point on the right hand side.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Which of these statements describe an undesirable situation when implementing SPC? (Note:There are 2 correct answers).
A. The lower Control Limit for the R chart is equal to zero
B. The Control Limits are wider than the customer specification limits
C. A process is in Statistical Control before implementation of SPC
D. Attempt to use SPC for tracking transaction times at a warehouse
E. Indication of the specification limits on the Control Chart
Answer: B,E
 B. The Control Limits are wider than the customer specification limits
 E. Indication of the specification limits on the Control Chart

If a process has Outliers which pair of charts is most preferable if subgroups will exist for the Continuous Data?
A. IndividualMoving Range
B. XbarR Charts
C. XbarS Charts
D. nP and P Charts
Answer: B. XbarR Charts

After a Belt has put data through the smoothing process which chart would be used to look for trends in the data?
A. Moving Average Chart
B. MultiVari Chart
C. X bar Chart
D. Pareto Chart
Answer: A. Moving Average Chart

A Belt concludes a Lean Six Sigma project with the creation of a Control Plan. At what point can the Control Plan be closed?
A. Never, a Control Plan is a living document
B. As soon as the Champion signs off
C. Within 30 days of the LSS project review team meeting
D. After the project has been presented at the recognition event
Answer: A. Never, a Control Plan is a living document

Six Sigma refers to a process whose output has at least 80% of its data points within +/ 6 Standard Deviations from the Mean.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

In the late 1980’s William Smith coined the name Six Sigma for a methodology that had its origins at __________________ for quality related work being done there.
A. Honeywell
B. Allied Signal
C. General Electric
D. Motorola
Answer: D. Motorola

Training cost $6,500 and a project required an initial investment of $47,500. If the project yields monthly savings of $3,500 beginning after 4 months, what is the payback period in months, before money costs and taxes?
A. 9.7
B. 15.4
C. 19.4
D. 23.7

The acronym for the defined approach taken by Lean Six Sigma to solve significant challenges related to a process is which of these?
A. DOE
B. DMAIC
C. SIPOC
D. FMEA
Answer: B. DMAIC

Voice of the Customer is a Lean Six Sigma technique to determine __________________attributes of a product or service.
A. At least 6
B. The profitable
C. CriticaltoQuality
D. The majority of the
Answer: C. CriticaltoQuality

Typically a person who is trained to the skill level of a Black Belt is nearly 80% dedicated to applying Lean Six Sigma methodologies towards process solutions.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

A process can be defined as a repetitive and systematic series of steps or activities where inputs are modified or assembled to achieve a _______________ result.
A. Revenue total
B. Month end
C. Customer desired
D. Budgeted
Answer: C. Customer desired

Customers make a purchase decision based on a number of factors. In Lean Six Sigma we refer to these decision points as CTQ’s which stands for __________.
A. Cost of the quantity
B. Conscious thought qualities
C. Conspicuous time quandaries
D. Criticaltoquality
Answer: D. Criticaltoquality

Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) can be classified as either Tangible (Visible) Costs or Hidden Costs.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The Purchase Orders for Glenn Manufacturing Company were being copied by an employee and sent to four different departments yet only one department took an action based on the information in the PO. This is an example of ____________.
A. External Failure Costs
B. Appraisal Costs
C. Internal Failure Costs
D. Prevention Costs
Answer: C. Internal Failure Costs

According to the definition of Rolled Throughput Yield which of the following items best describe the purpose of RTY?
A. A function of Y=f(x)
B. Determines incremental Growth
C. Isolates the increase throughput
D. Accounts for rejects and reworks
Answer: D. Accounts for rejects and reworks

One of the metrics commonly used in Lean Six Sigma is DPU. This acronym stands for___________________.
A. Deferred planned usage
B. Defects per unit
C. Decreased production utilization
D. Downtime per unit
Answer: B. Defects per unit

The 80:20 rule is associated with which of these tools?
A. Pareto Chart
B. Simon's CrossFunctional Tool
C. SIPOC
D. Framing Tool

What is the Cycle Time, in minutes, for a process having a Throughput of 360 units per hour?
A. 0.167
B. 0.333
C. 0.667
D. 1.333
Answer: A. 0.167

“During fiscal year 2008 the warranty returns for electric razor Model 312 were 1.3%. This represents a gap of 0.5% over target costing the company $18,500 per month.”
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

In order to standardize project savings financial calculation such project benefits can be compared the financial savings are typically calculated over what period of time?
A. 12 months
B. 24 months
C. The remainder of the calendar year
D. The remainder of the fiscal year
Answer: A. 12 months

The essence of Lean is to concentrate effort on removing waste while improving process flow to achieve speed and agility at lower cost.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

Which element of waste best describes "the unnecessary movement of materials and/or goods"?
A. Over processing
B. Motion
C. Conveyance
D. Correction
Answer: C. Conveyance

Lean removes many forms of ______________ so Six Sigma can focus on reducing_______________.
A. Waste, variability
B. Inventory, defects
C. Waste, cost
D. Movement, variation
Answer: A. Waste, variability

Lean had its origins in the development and practice of the ___________ Production System.
A. Honda
B. Toyota
C. Ford
D. Motorola
Answer: B. Toyota

Which element of waste best describes the cost of a resource being in the queue?
A. Waiting
B. Motion
C. Inventory
D. Correction
Answer: A. Waiting

Lean Enterprise is based on the premise that anywhere work is being done which of these is also occurring?
A. Money is being spent
B. Waste is being generated
C. People are producing value added product
D. Waste is being eliminated
 Answer: B. Waste is being generated

Lean focuses on the sequence of activities and work required to produce a product or a service.This flow is called a ___________________.
A. Valueadd Flow
B. Production Map
C. Value Stream
D. Operating Procedure
Answer: C. Value Stream

The proper functioning of a Visual Factory is dependent upon which of these?A. Technically skilled workers
B. Work space with active 5S
C. Availability of visual tools
D. Breakthrough projects
Answer: C. Availability of visual tools

Use of the ________ approach is the most classic arrangement when constructing a Fishbone Diagram.
A. Chronological
B. 6M
C. 5M
D. Alphabetical
Answer: B. 6M

When creating a Cause and Effect Diagram the team needs to continually broaden their view as well as drill down until they identify all the potential ______________ impacting their process.
A. Line operators
B. Root Causes
C. Inventory issues
D. Customer requests
Answer: B. Root Causes

The purpose of a Process Map is to identify the complexity of the process and to record all actions and decision points in the process.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The very best way to begin an effort to map a process is to do which of these?
A. Interview the process owner
B. Interview the manager of the department
C. Walk the actual process from beginning to end
D. Take pictures of the factory floor at each shift
 Answer: C. Walk the actual process from beginning to end

The XY Diagram is a tool used to identify/collate potential X's and assess their relative impact on multiple Y's.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The FMEA is used to analyze potential source of defects in the process of interest and stands for________________________.
A. Failure Measure for Effective Automation
B. Failure Modes and Effect Analysis
C. Focused Mental Efforts Analyze
D. Failed Manufacturing Efforts Analyzed
Answer: B. Failure Modes and Effect Analysis

With the use of Statistics we define the population to be a large enough sample set of data such that you can analyze it and draw conclusions as to all of the data.
A. True
B. False
Answer: B. False

Which of these is Discrete data?
A. Train arrived at 4:17 pm.
B. Race car consumed 23 gallons of fuel.
C. Of the 42 people on the bus, 12 went into the station.
D. It took 3 hours and 32 minutes to complete the marathon.
Answer: C. Of the 42 people on the bus, 12 went into the station.

Nominal Scale data consists of names, labels or categories and cannot be arranged in any mathematical ordering scheme. Complex arithmetic functions cannot be easily applied to Nominal Data:
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

When looking at a distribution graph, the Mean is defined as the __________.
A. Average based on the sample size
B. Aggression measured
C. Total sample size
D. Measurement based off a quarter of the sample size
Answer: A. Average based on the sample size

When constructing a Fishbone Diagram using the ________ approach is the most classic arrangement.
A. 6M
B. 4M
C. 5M
D. Alphabetical

The ____________ is important because it provides an estimate of the probability of an event occurring depending on the Standard Deviation from the Mean.
A. Shewhart Principle
B. Pareto Rule
C. Mean/Mode Spread
D. Empirical Rule
Answer: D. Empirical Rule

If the data displayed in a Histogram displays two peaks the distribution would likely be_____________.
A. Transformed
B. Multiskewed
C. Biattribute
D. Bimodal
Answer: D. Bimodal

Longterm Data represents all the variation that one can expect within the subject process.
A. True
B. False

The Z score is a measure of the distance in Standard Deviations of a sample data point from the Median of the sample population.
A. True
B. False

A Belt gathered the following defect data for a shoe production line and wanted to assemble it into a Pareto Chart. The correct order from left to right in the chart would be:
Data:
Cutting 38
Forming 17
Stitching 56
Sealing 42
A. Forming, Sealing, Cutting, Stitching
B. Sealing, Stitching, Forming, Cutting
C. Stitching, Sealing, Cutting, Forming
D. Forming, Cutting, Sealing, Stitching
Answer: C. Stitching, Sealing, Cutting, Forming

Measurement error is defined as the effect of all sources of measurement variability that caused an observed or measured value to deviate from the __________.
A. Standard Deviation
B. Mean
C. Median
D. True value
Answer: D. True value

Measurement System Analysis is a procedure used to quantify all ____________ in the method or system used for taking measurements.
A. Totals
B. People involved
C. Variation
D. Summations
Answer: C. Variation

The Accuracy of a Measurement System addresses _________________.
A. Stability, Bias & Linearity
B. Repeatability & Reproducibility
C. Stability & Sensitivity
D. Precision & Sensitivity
Answer: A. Stability, Bias & Linearity

As a type of measurement error, Linearity describes a change in accuracy through the expected operating range of the measurement instrument.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

The deviation of the measured value from the actual value regardless of the operator is known as______________.
A. Linearity
B. Bias
C. Repeatability
D. Movement
Answer: B. Bias

The ability to repeat the same measurement obtained with one measurement instrument used several times by one appraiser while measuring the identical characteristic on the same part is known as ____________.
A. Repeatability
B. Bias
C. Linearity
D. Reproducibility
Answer: A. Repeatability

Process Capability is a function of which of these?
A. Customer requirements
B. Process performance
C. Output over time
D. All of these answers are correct
Answer: D. All of these answers are correct

The reported Cpk for a process with an average of 94 units, a spread of 22 units and upper and lower specification limits of 125 and 80 units would be?
A. 0.64
B. 1.27
C. 1.84
D. 2.12
Answer: B. 1.27

A Stable process is a process whose output is consistent over time. A primary tool used to analyze Stability would be a ________________.
A. Data Forward Plot
B. Bag Plot
C. Min/Max Plot
D. Time Series Plot
Answer: D. Time Series Plot

Conducting a viable Capability Analysis using Attribute Data one must obtain a fairly large sample set to be statistically sound.
A. True
B. False
Answer: A. True

This output is what type of advanced Capability Analysis?
A. Continuous
B. Binomial
C. Poisson
D. Discreet
E. DPU
Answer: B. Binomial

