Bio 20- Unit A

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Bio 20- Unit A
2014-06-19 01:17:46
aleahmurphybio20 bio20unitA
biology 20
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  1. organisms that make their own food. first trophic level
  2. organisms that feed on producers. second trophic level
    primary consumers
  3. rely on primary consumers. third trophic level
    secondary consumers
  4. consumers at any level that cannot make their own food. third trophic level
  5. step by step sequence showing who eats whom in an ecosystem
    food chain
  6. showing a feeding relationship amongst a variety of different species
    food web
  7. CO+ H2O + energy --> glucose + oxygen
  8. glucose + oxygen --> CO2 + H2O + energy
    cellular respiration
  9. the synthesis of organic compounds by bacteria or other living organisms using energy derived from reactions involving inorganic chemicals, typically in the absence of sunlight
  10. energy can be changed, it cannot be created nor destroyed
    First Law of Thermodynamics
  11. during any energy transformation, some of the energy is converted into a useable form such as thermal energy (energy lost to heat) and cannot be passed on
    Second Law of Thermodynamics
  12. can be drawn by counting the number of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem
    Pyramid of Numbers
  13. measured in the dry mass of all living things in an ecosystem. measured in g
    Pyramid of Biomass
  14. created by measuring and graphing the amount of energy available at each trophic level. measured in kJ
    pyramid of energy
  15. the increasing concentration of toxic substances within each successive link in the food chain
    biological magnification/amplification
  16. biosphere supports life. made up of
    • lithosphere- land
    • hydrosphere- water
    • atmosphere- air
  17. a system and its components that are undergoing change and can adjust to the change without upsetting the whole system
    • dynamic equilibrium
    • ex. bucket with hole being constantly filled with water
  18. groups of individuals of the same species found in a given areat at a given time
  19. all the species in a given area
  20. a community and its abiotic components
  21. the number of different species found in an ecosystem
  22. close to extinction in all parts of the country
  23. no longer exist in one part of the country
  24. is likely to become endangered if factors that make it vulnerable are not reversed
  25. refers to any species that is at risk because of low or declining numbers at the fringe of its range or in some restricted area
    special concern
  26. some species that are particularly sensitive to changes in an ecosystem
    • indicator species
    • ex. amphibians
  27. organic compounds undergo changes within living things and within ecosystems
    cycling of matter
  28. importance of water to organisms
    • absorbs and releases thermal energy and moderates temperature fluctuations
    • is the medium in which metabolic reactions take place
    • is an excellent solvent
    • makes up 60% of the cell's mass
    • supplies hydrogen atoms to producers during the metabolism of key organic molecules during photosynthesis and oxygen atoms to all organisms during cellular respiration
    • is a reactant in some metabolic activities and product in others
    • polar molecule (has a positive end and a negative end)
    • molecules joined by covalent bonds
    • hydrogen bonds pull water molecules together and give water its unique properties
  29. lakes, swamps, sloughs river, streams- flow to the ocean ground water- sinks into the soil
    standing water
  30. the loss of water through plant leaves
  31. precipitation the collects above the ground in lakes, ponds and rivers
    surface water
  32. water that seeps into the soil (percolation)
    ground water
  33. the top level of the region below the ground that is saturated with water
    water table
  34. as water seeps downward it carries dissolved organic matter and minerals to lower layers of the soil
    • leaching
    • plants with long roots help solve the problem by bringing minerals and chemicals back to the surface
  35. acid disposition and the water cycle
    • smokestacks of coal burning generators, metal smelters and oil refineries provide energy and products for industry
    • at the same time produce sulpher and nitrogen oxides which combine with water to form harmful acids
  36. the carbon cycle
    the cycle of matter in which carbon atoms move from an inorganic form to an organic form and then back again

  37. atmospheric gases that surround the Earth and trap the heat from the sun and warm the Earth's surface. (ex. COand methane)
    greenhouse effect
  38. the burning of wood and fossil fuels have caused carbon dioxide levels to triple over the past 40 years
    global warming
  39. a thick subsurface layer of soil that remains frozen throughout the year, occurring chiefly in polar regions
  40. the oxygen cycle
    • it is closely linked to the carbon cycle because oxygen is also part of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
    • oxygen is found in the ozone, molecules of carbon dioxide, water and glucose
    • it is a part of living things, the atmosphere, water and rock
  41. can be found in the atmosphere, ocean and Earth's crust
    inorganic carbon
  42. found in the bodies of living things and in peat
    organic carbon
  43. slowly decomposing plant matter produced in low-oxygen environments
    • peat
    • under extra pressure and over time, peat can be compressed and transformed into coal
    • ex. bog
  44. the extent to which a surface can reflect light that strikes it
    • albedo effect
    • high albedo = reflects
    • low albedo = absorbs
  45. nitrogen cycle
    • the cycle of matter in which nitrogen atoms move from nitrogen gas in the atmosphere to inorganic forms in the soil, to organic forms in living things and then back to inorganic forms in the soil and nitrogen gas in the atmosphere
    • nitrogen is required for cells to make proteins and DNA 
    • 79% of the atmosphere is made from nitrogen gas
  46. two processes in which atmospheric or dissolved nitrogen is converted into nitrate ions
    • nitrogen fixation
    • ex.lightning
    • nitrogen fixing bacteria
  47. the process in which nitrates are converted to nitrites and then to nitrogen gas which is released back into the atmosphere
    • denitrification 
    • carried out by bacteria that do not need oxygen
    • speeds up when soil is acidic or water logged
    • plants require nitrates to make chlorophyll
  48. the phosphorus cycle
    • the cycling of phosphorus between biotic and abiotic components of the environments
    • phosphorus is necessary for cell membranes, ATP, DNA and bones
    • phosphorus in the bedrock is found in the form of phosphate ions (PO34-)
  49. absorbs heat
  50. releases/gives off heat