Joints and bones..txt

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Joints and bones..txt
2014-06-18 11:35:45

Anatomy and physiology joints and bones
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  1. What is a Synarthroses (synarthrotic joint)?
    • A non movable joint
    • Most fibrous joints
    • e.g. sutures
  2. What are Amphiarthroses joints?
    • Amphiarthrotic joints
    • Semimovable
    • Most cartilages
    • Intervertebral discs
  3. What are diarthroses?
    • Diarthrotic joints
    • Freely movable joints
    • Synovial joints
  4. What is a Gomphoses?
    an articulation of tooth in alveolus
  5. What is a syndesmosis?
    • a joint in which the bones are united by fibrous connective tissue forming an interosseous membrane or ligament
    • costal Cartilage
    • intervertebral discs
    • pubic arch
  6. What are synocial joints?
    • Movable joints
    • Most common
    • Contains a joint capsule made of synovial membrane and filled with synocial fluid
  7. What is the structure of synovial joints?
    • Articular carilage: hyaline covers ends of bones - purpose; a cushion or compression
    • Joint/synovial cavity: Potential space with a little synocial fluid
    • Artiular capsule: double layer that encloses joint cavity
  8. What is a Fibrous capsule?
    Fibrous capsule - dense irregular connective tissue
  9. What is a Synovial membrane?
    Loos connective tissue + simple squamous epithelium
  10. What is synovial fluid?
    A slippery fluid within joint capsule - derived by filtration of capillaries in synovial membrane.
  11. What are Reinforcing ligaments?
    Ligaments that Reinforce and strengthen joints.
  12. What are Intrinsic/capsular ligaments?
    Thickened fibrocartilage
  13. What are extracapsular ligaments?
    Ligaments outside the capsule
  14. What are intracapsular ligaments?
    • Ligaments deep to the capsule
    • (But not within joint cavity)
  15. What is a Bursae?
    • A flattish fibrous sac
    • lined w/synovial membrane
    • Has a small amount of synovial fluid within
  16. Where are Bursae sacs located?
    Where muscles, ligaments, tendons, skin or bones rub
  17. What are tendon sheaths?
    Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
  18. What is the articulating surface?
    The surface of the bones that connect
  19. What are the four ranges of movement?
    • Nonaxial
    • Uniaxial
    • Biaxial
    • Multiaxial
  20. What is nonaxial movement?
    Glide/slip (carpals)
  21. What is uniaxial movment?
    1 plane (elbow)
  22. What is biaxial movement?
    2 planrs (knuckles, metacarpocarpal)
  23. What is multiaxial movement?
    Multiple planes (shoulder) or biaxial motion puls rotation
  24. What 3 types of movement do synovial joints allow?
    • Gliding
    • Angular
    • Rotation
  25. What is gliding movement?
    • (nonaxial) gliding or slipping motion
    • Ex. Carpals, tarsals, intervertebral articular process
  26. What is angular movement?
    • Increase/decrease angles b/n bones
    • ex. flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
  27. What is rotation movement?
    • Turning bone on its own axis
    • Ex.C1-C2, shoulder, hip, basic ball and socket joints
  28. What are the types of synovial joints?
    • Plane or gliding
    • Hinge
    • Pivot
    • Condyloid
    • Saddle
    • Ball and socket
  29. What is a plane or gliding synovial joint?
    • Allows only gliding motions (nonaxial)
    • Articular surface are flattish
    • Intercarpal, intertarsal, vertebral articular process
  30. What are Hinge synocial joints?
    • Singlge plane of motion (uniaxial)
    • Cylinder projection fits into trough
    • Elbow, interphalangeal joints.
  31. What are pivot synovial joints?
    • Round protrusions that fit into sleeve/ring (uniaxial)
    • C1-C3 proximal radioulnar joint
  32. What are condyloid synovial joints?
    • 2 Complementary oval articular surfaces (biaxial)
    • Metacarpophalangeal (knuckles), Radiocarpal (wrist)
  33. What are saddle synavial joints?
    • Each is concave and convex (Biaxial)
    • Carpometacarpal
  34. What is a ball and socket synovial joint?
    • Heads fit into cup (multiaxial)
    • Shoulder and hip
  35. What is flexion?
    • Decreasing the angle between two bones or parts
    • A "curl"
  36. What is extension?
    Increasing the angle between two bones or parts
  37. What is circumduction?
    A sequence of movements in which on end inscribes a circle
  38. What is Plantarflexion?
    Point toes down
  39. What is dorsiflexion?
    Point toes up
  40. What is inversion?
    Bottom of foot move medial
  41. What is eversion?
    Bottom of foot move lateral
  42. What is opposition?
    Thumb to finger
  43. What is Retraction?
    To move a part backward
  44. What is Protraction?
    To move a part forward
  45. What is depression?
    To lower a part
  46. What joints are in the knee?
    • Femoropatellar
    • Tibiofemoral
    • Tibiofibular
  47. What is the femoropatellar joint?
    • Gliding, planar
    • patellar groove on femur
  48. What is the tibiofibular joint?
    • Synarthrotic
    • Syndesmosis
  49. What is tibiofemoral joint?
    • Biaxial, hinge or extesion/flexion
    • B/N femoral condyles and menisci on superior aspect of tibia
  50. What are the ligaments of the knee?
    • Anterior ligaments
    • Patellar ligament/tendon
    • Medial retinaculum
    • Lateral retinaculum
    • Intracapsular L
    • Anterior cruciate
    • Posterior criciate
    • Exrecapsular L
    • Fibular and tibial collateral
    • Oblique popliteal
    • Arcuate popliteal
  51. What is the ligamentum teres?
    • Forms pit in femoral head
    • Contains imp. artery
  52. What are the ligaments of the hip?
    • Iliofemoral
    • Pubofemoral
    • ischiofemoral
  53. What are the bones of the skull?
    • Frontal bone
    • Perpendicular plat of the ethmoid
    • Middle and inferior conchae
    • Vomer
    • Mandible
    • Maxilla
    • Zygomatic
    • Nasal
    • Temoporal
    • occipital
    • sphenoid
    • cribiform plate
    • Crista galli
    • sella turcica (contains piruitary gland)