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What is a Synarthroses (synarthrotic joint)?
- A non movable joint
- Most fibrous joints
- e.g. sutures
What are Amphiarthroses joints?
- Amphiarthrotic joints
- Most cartilages
- Intervertebral discs
What are diarthroses?
- Diarthrotic joints
- Freely movable joints
- Synovial joints
What is a Gomphoses?
an articulation of tooth in alveolus
What is a syndesmosis?
- a joint in which the bones are united by fibrous connective tissue forming an interosseous membrane or ligament
- costal Cartilage
- intervertebral discs
- pubic arch
What are synocial joints?
- Movable joints
- Most common
- Contains a joint capsule made of synovial membrane and filled with synocial fluid
What is the structure of synovial joints?
- Articular carilage: hyaline covers ends of bones - purpose; a cushion or compression
- Joint/synovial cavity: Potential space with a little synocial fluid
- Artiular capsule: double layer that encloses joint cavity
What is a Fibrous capsule?
Fibrous capsule - dense irregular connective tissue
What is a Synovial membrane?
Loos connective tissue + simple squamous epithelium
What is synovial fluid?
A slippery fluid within joint capsule - derived by filtration of capillaries in synovial membrane.
What are Reinforcing ligaments?
Ligaments that Reinforce and strengthen joints.
What are Intrinsic/capsular ligaments?
What are extracapsular ligaments?
Ligaments outside the capsule
What are intracapsular ligaments?
- Ligaments deep to the capsule
- (But not within joint cavity)
What is a Bursae?
- A flattish fibrous sac
- lined w/synovial membrane
- Has a small amount of synovial fluid within
Where are Bursae sacs located?
Where muscles, ligaments, tendons, skin or bones rub
What are tendon sheaths?
Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
What is the articulating surface?
The surface of the bones that connect
What are the four ranges of movement?
What is nonaxial movement?
What is uniaxial movment?
1 plane (elbow)
What is biaxial movement?
2 planrs (knuckles, metacarpocarpal)
What is multiaxial movement?
Multiple planes (shoulder) or biaxial motion puls rotation
What 3 types of movement do synovial joints allow?
What is gliding movement?
- (nonaxial) gliding or slipping motion
- Ex. Carpals, tarsals, intervertebral articular process
What is angular movement?
- Increase/decrease angles b/n bones
- ex. flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
What is rotation movement?
- Turning bone on its own axis
- Ex.C1-C2, shoulder, hip, basic ball and socket joints
What are the types of synovial joints?
- Plane or gliding
- Ball and socket
What is a plane or gliding synovial joint?
- Allows only gliding motions (nonaxial)
- Articular surface are flattish
- Intercarpal, intertarsal, vertebral articular process
What are Hinge synocial joints?
- Singlge plane of motion (uniaxial)
- Cylinder projection fits into trough
- Elbow, interphalangeal joints.
What are pivot synovial joints?
- Round protrusions that fit into sleeve/ring (uniaxial)
- C1-C3 proximal radioulnar joint
What are condyloid synovial joints?
- 2 Complementary oval articular surfaces (biaxial)
- Metacarpophalangeal (knuckles), Radiocarpal (wrist)
What are saddle synavial joints?
- Each is concave and convex (Biaxial)
What is a ball and socket synovial joint?
- Heads fit into cup (multiaxial)
- Shoulder and hip
What is flexion?
- Decreasing the angle between two bones or parts
- A "curl"
What is extension?
Increasing the angle between two bones or parts
What is circumduction?
A sequence of movements in which on end inscribes a circle
What is Plantarflexion?
Point toes down
What is dorsiflexion?
Point toes up
What is inversion?
Bottom of foot move medial
What is eversion?
Bottom of foot move lateral
What is opposition?
Thumb to finger
What is Retraction?
To move a part backward
What is Protraction?
To move a part forward
What is depression?
To lower a part
What joints are in the knee?
What is the femoropatellar joint?
- Gliding, planar
- patellar groove on femur
What is the tibiofibular joint?
What is tibiofemoral joint?
- Biaxial, hinge or extesion/flexion
- B/N femoral condyles and menisci on superior aspect of tibia
What are the ligaments of the knee?
- Anterior ligaments
- Patellar ligament/tendon
- Medial retinaculum
- Lateral retinaculum
- Intracapsular L
- Anterior cruciate
- Posterior criciate
- Exrecapsular L
- Fibular and tibial collateral
- Oblique popliteal
- Arcuate popliteal
What is the ligamentum teres?
- Forms pit in femoral head
- Contains imp. artery
What are the ligaments of the hip?
What are the bones of the skull?
- Frontal bone
- Perpendicular plat of the ethmoid
- Middle and inferior conchae
- cribiform plate
- Crista galli
- sella turcica (contains piruitary gland)