Biology 20 Chapter 8
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What are the three main types of nutrients needed in the body?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats/Lipids
What are the roles of Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats/Lipids in the body?
- -Energy source
- -Structural components of the cell
- -Energy Storage
- -Insulation of skin and cushioning of organs
- -Synthesis of hormones
The taking in of nutrients
The breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by enzymes
The transport of digested nutrients to the cels of the body
The removal of food waste from the body
What is the stomach's role in digestion?
- -Where most digestion occurs.
- -Gastric juices made up of hydrochloric acid and the pepsin enzyme break down the food. -The stomach also contains a layer of mucous to protect itself from the harmful chemicals contained in it
What is the Esophagus' role in the digestive system?
-Used peristalsis (muscle contractions) to push the food down to the stomach
What is the oral Cavity's role in the digestive system?
- -It mechanically breaks down food with teeth
- - Contains salivary glands which use the enzyme amylase to start the digestion of carbohydrates in food
What are the Pharynx and the Epiglottis?
Pharynx- the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.
Epiglottis-a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the windpipe.
What is the Liver's role in the digestive system?
- -Its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine.
- Bile produced in the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat.
What is the Gall Bladder's role in the digestive system?
It stores the bile produced in the liver
What is the Pancreas's role in the digestive system?
- - the pancreas excretes enzymes (amylase, trypsin, erepson, to break down the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in food
- -Enzymes are secreted into the small intestine to further break down food after it has left the stomach.
- -The gland also produces the hormone insulin and secretes it into the bloodstream in order to regulate the body's glucose or sugar level.
- produces lipases
What is the Small Intestine's role in the digestive system?
- -Site of most absorption and digestion
- -Contains microvilli to aid the process of absorption
- -Takes in some of the enzymes used in the pancreas to aid with digestion
What is the Large Intestines role in the digestive system?
- - takes care of absorbing any water left in the food that hasn't been digested ye
- - takes care of passing any unused waste from the body
- - the large intestine includes the anal canal, rectum, colon and cecum
glucose + fructose --> H20 + sucrose is the formula for what?
relating to the lungs
opens into the pharynx
air filled channel at the back of the mouth. mucus traps debris that escape the filters in the nasal passage. debris is swept back from the windpipe to the...
the flap like structure that covers the glottis (the opening of the trachea) during swallowing
the windpipe. contains mucus producing cells that line the...
sac like repository organs that allow air to be drawn so that air can pass into the blood and carbon dioxide can be removed
carries air into the lungs
small airways in the lungs that carry oxygen and are lined with mucus and cilia
tiny sacs in the lungs. gases diffuse between the air and the blood depending on the concentration gradient
the intercostal muscles cause the ribs to move during breathing
- rib cage
- intercostal muscles
dome shaped sheet of muscle
- contracts during inspiration
- relaxes during expiration
smallest blood vessels that form the connection between veins and arteries. transport fluids and gases. one cell layer thick
capillaries/ capillary network
lines the outer surface of the lungs as well as the inner wall of the chest cavity
- high pressure
- thick walls
- away from heart
- 99% oxygenated blood
- red in colour
- low pressure
- thin walls
- to the heart
- 99% deoxygenated blood
- purple in colour
- systolic contracts/increases pressure
- diastolic is relaxed
increases the blood's ability to carry oxygen
red blood cell
white blood cell
found in the bone marrow
blood circulating between the heart and the lungs
the chemoreceptor that our body uses as a backup when there are low levels of oxygen
- ex. needed in high altitudes
sets the heart's beat rate and acts as a pacemaker
conductor. small mass of tissue in the AV region. passes nerve impulses through purkinje fibres to the ventricles
abnormally high blood pressure
the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different
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