Biology 20 Chapter 8

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  1. What are the three main types of nutrients needed in the body?
    Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats/Lipids
  2. What are the roles of Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats/Lipids in the body?
    • Carbohydrates:
    • -Energy source

    • Proteins:
    • -Structural components of the cell
    • -Enzymes
    • -Antibodies

    • Fats/Lipids:
    • -Energy Storage
    • -Insulation of skin and cushioning of organs
    • -Synthesis of hormones
  3. Ingestion
    The taking in of nutrients
  4. Digestion
    The breakdown of complex organic molecules into smaller components by enzymes
  5. Absorption
    The transport of digested nutrients to the cels of the body
  6. Egestion
    The removal of food waste from the body
  7. What is the stomach's role in digestion?
    • -Where most digestion occurs.
    • -Gastric juices made up of hydrochloric acid and the pepsin enzyme break down the food. -The stomach also contains a layer of mucous to protect itself from the harmful chemicals contained in it
  8. What is the Esophagus' role in the digestive system?
    -Used peristalsis (muscle contractions) to push the food down to the stomach
  9. What is the oral Cavity's role in the digestive system?
    • -It mechanically breaks down food with teeth
    • - Contains salivary glands which use the enzyme amylase to start the digestion of carbohydrates in food
  10. What are the Pharynx and the Epiglottis?
    Pharynx- the membrane-lined cavity behind the nose and mouth, connecting them to the esophagus.

    Epiglottis-a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, which is depressed during swallowing to cover the opening of the windpipe.
  11. What is the Liver's role in the digestive system?
    • -Its main function within the digestive system is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine.
    • Bile produced in the liver secreted into the small intestine also plays an important role in digesting fat.
  12. What is the Gall Bladder's role in the digestive system?
    It stores the bile produced in the liver
  13. What is the Pancreas's role in the digestive system?
    • - the pancreas excretes enzymes (amylase, trypsin, erepson,  to break down the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in food
    • -Enzymes are secreted into the small intestine to further break down food after it has left the stomach.
    • -The gland also produces the hormone insulin and secretes it into the bloodstream in order to regulate the body's glucose or sugar level.
    • produces lipases
  14. What is the Small Intestine's role in the digestive system?
    • -Site of most absorption and digestion
    • -Contains microvilli to aid the process of absorption
    • -Takes in some of the enzymes used in the pancreas to aid with digestion
  15. What is the Large Intestines role in the digestive system?
    • - takes care of absorbing any water left in the food that hasn't been digested ye
    • - takes care of passing any unused waste from the body
    • -  the large intestine includes the anal canal, rectum, colon and cecum
  16. glucose + fructose --> H20 + sucrose is the formula for what?
    Dehydration Synthesis
  17. relating to the lungs
  18. opens into the pharynx
    nasal cavity
  19. air filled channel at the back of the mouth. mucus traps debris that escape the filters in the nasal passage. debris is swept back from the windpipe to the...
  20. the flap like structure that covers the glottis (the opening of the trachea) during swallowing
  21. the voice box
  22. the windpipe. contains mucus producing cells that line the...
  23. sac like repository organs that allow air to be drawn so that air can pass into the blood and carbon dioxide can be removed
  24. carries air into the lungs
  25. small airways in the lungs that carry oxygen and are lined with mucus and cilia
  26. tiny sacs in the lungs. gases diffuse between the air and the blood depending on the concentration gradient
  27. the intercostal muscles cause the ribs to move during breathing
    • rib cage
    • intercostal muscles
  28. dome shaped sheet of muscle
    • diaphragm
    • contracts during inspiration
    • relaxes during expiration
  29. smallest blood vessels that form the connection between veins and arteries. transport fluids and gases. one cell layer thick
    capillaries/ capillary network
  30. lines the outer surface of the lungs as well as the inner wall of the chest cavity
    pleural membrane
  31. artery
    • high pressure
    • thick walls
    • away from heart
    • 99% oxygenated blood
    • red in colour
  32. veins
    • low pressure
    • thin walls
    • to the heart
    • 99% deoxygenated blood
    • purple in colour
  33. blood pressure
    • systolic/diastolic
    • systolic contracts/increases pressure
    • diastolic is relaxed
  34. increases the blood's ability to carry oxygen
  35. erythrocyte 
    red blood cell
  36. leukocyte 
    white blood cell
  37. found in the bone marrow
    blood cells
  38. blood circulating between the heart and the lungs
    pulmonary circulation 
  39. the chemoreceptor that our body uses as a backup when there are low levels of oxygen 
    • oxygen
    • ex. needed in high altitudes
  40. sets the heart's beat rate and acts as a pacemaker
    SA node
  41. conductor. small mass of tissue in the AV region. passes nerve impulses through purkinje fibres to the ventricles
    AV node
  42. abnormally high blood pressure
  43. the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different
Card Set:
Biology 20 Chapter 8
2014-06-19 06:01:13
digestive system
biology 20
grade 11 bio #swag
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