The head and Neck #1

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The head and Neck #1
2014-06-18 23:37:13
Anatomy Chapter Seven

Doctor J, cross words, CCRI
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  1. this bone is part of the appendicular skeleton. It articulates with the scapula and the manubrium of humans, while in cats it floats. In humans it acts as a brace for the scapula. it serves as origin and insertion for a number of muscles.
  2. This is the exposed part of a healthy tooth. From superficial to deep this part is covered by a thin layer of enamel ( 2_2.5mm thick ), then dentin, and then pulp. This part becomes the neck of the tooth which is where it meets the gingiva: below the gingiva we find the root of the tooth.
  3. When we were in nursery school we called these our "gums." Functionally they are important because they form a seal around each tooth and its neck. This seal protects the root of the tooth where its dentin is not covered with enamel. When dentin is exposed to food and bacteria, it is susceptible to decay.
  4. These are external openings leading to nasal cavities. They normally conduct air: although if you laugh while you are eating or drinking, they may also conduct food and liquids.
    External Nares
  5. This material underlies the enamel in the crown of the tooth and forms the hard part of the root of the tooth.  It is about 64.5 percent hydroxyapatite, which is harder than bone. it is more porous than enamel.
  6. This is a hard material ( calcified connective tissue ) that helps secure the tooth into its alveolus by attaching it to the periodontal membrane ( ligament).
  7. This organ begins at the inferior end of the pharynx. It passes through the cervical region, then through the thoracic cavity, through the diaphragm at the level of thoracic vertebra 10 body at midinhalation, and on to the stomach. Functionally it is important because it transports food from the pharynx to the stomach.
  8. This is the hardest material in a human unless you have foreign objects in you, not that there is anything wrong with that. it is about 92 percent hydroxyapatite, accounting for its hardness. it is about 2 to 2.5 mm thick on the outside of the crown.
  9. This is the name for an organ that produces secretions that pass through a duct ( except for one_celled goblet cells.) The secretions pass into a cavity or onto the surface of the body.
    Exocrine Gland
  10. This is the name for the opening between the vocal cords leading to the trachea.
  11. The intercellular matrix of the tooth and bone tissue is made of hydroxyapatite ( mostly) and this material. These protein fibers add stability to the matrix as steel reinforcement rods add stability to cement in the construction of large objects.
    Bone Collagen
  12. This artery is the first medial branch of the common carotid artery that we will study in the cat. it serves they thyroid gland.
    Cranial Thyroid Artery
  13. This Cartilage forms the walls of the glottis and anchors the vocal cords. it is the only laryngeal cartilage that is split in two pieces.
    Arytenoid Cartilage
  14. This muscle combines with the sternomastoid muscle in humans, but in cats it remains separate. it is at least partially covered by the clavotrapezius of the cat.
    Cleidomastoid muscle
  15. These depressions are found in both of the maxillary bones and the mandible. They are functionally important because the teeth are cemented into these depressions.
  16. This nerve is a cranial nerve. It is both motor and sensory. It also has parasympathetic functions which controls the lacrimal gland as well as the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands. It exits the skull via the sytlomastoid foramen. We will observe this nerve on the lateral portion of the face where its two branches bracket the masseter muscle.
    Facial Nerve ( VII)
  17. This muscle depresses the mandible ( opens the mouth ).
    Diagastric Muscle
  18. The live portions of teeth contain these, which are capable of repairing a tooth when it is damaged, but require a blood supply to stay alive