Glaucoma drugs NBEO.txt
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What prostaglandins are there (name brand)?
- Travatan P
What are the generic prostaglandins?
- Lumigan = bimatoprost
- Travatan Z = travoprost
- Xalatan = latanoprost
What are the major side effects of prostaglandins?
- Eyelash growth
- Iris pigment change
- Dark skin around eye
- Compromised orbital fat
What prostaglandin causes itching?
Lumigan = bimatoprost
What are contraindications of prostaglandins?
- Active uveitis
- HSV keratitis
What percentage IOP decrease is expected in prostaglandins?
What is the mode of action of prostaglandins?
Increasing uveoscleral outflow by pulling on CB and thus causing less resistance
What color lid are prostaglandins?
What b-blockers are there?
- Istalol (Timoptic, Betimol, Timoptic preservative free,Timoptic-XE)
What are the generic b-blockers?
- Betagan = levobunolol hydrochloride
- Betimol = timolol hemihydrate
- Betoptic-S = betaxolol hydrochloride
- Istalol and all Timoptics = timolol maleate
What are major side effects of b-blockers?
- Sinus bradycardia
- Heart problems
- Severe asthma
What b-blocker is b-1 specific?
What percentage IOP decrease is expected in b-blockers?
What combo drugs include b-blockers?
- Cosopt (Trusopt/dorzolamide & timolol)
- Combigan (Alphagan/brimonidine & timolol)
What color lid are b-blockers?
blue or yellow
What is the mode of action of b-blockers?
- Decrease aqueous production
- Increases trabecular outflow
Why are there different concentration of beta-blockers?
- 0.25% for Caucasian patients
- 0.50% for darker patients
- Melanin pigments tend to bind to beta-blocker molecules, so in the end both patients receive about 0.25%
What brand-name carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are there?
- Cosopt (combo drug)
- Neptazane (oral)
- Methazolamide (oral)
- Dichlorphenamide (oral)
What are the generic CAIs?
- Azopt = brinzolamide
- Trusopt = dorzolamide
- Cosopt = Trusopt/dorzolamide & timolol
- Diamox = acetazolamide
What color lid are CAIs?
What is the mode of action of CAIs?
- Reduces biocarbonate
- Prevents aqueous production
What glaucoma medication class is sulfa based?
What percentage IOP decrease is expected in CAIs?
What are major side effects of CAIs?
- Bone marrow suppression
- Bitter taste
- GI upset
- Aplastic anemia
What are contraindications of use of CAIs?
- Dialysis and kidney disease
- If corneal edema is present
What is the mode of action of alpha (a2) adrenergics?
Decrease production and increase outflow by constricting CB
What brand-name alpha (a2) adrenergic agonists are there?
- Alphagan P
What are the generic alpha adrenergics?
- Alphagan = brimonidine
- Iopidine = apraclonidine
- Combigan = Alphagan/brimonidine & timolol
- Simbrinza = Alphagan/brimonidine & azopt/brinzolamide)
What glaucoma medication class is safest in preggers?
Alpha (a2) adrenergics
What color lid are alpha (a2) adrenergics?
purple or white
What drug class can be used in active uveitis?
Alpha (a2) adrenergics
What are major side effects of alpha (a2) adrenergics?
- Dry mouth
- Periocular blepharitis / dermatitis
What percentage IOP decrease is expected in alpha (a2) adrenergics?
- 18% for Alphagan
- 30% for apraclonidine
What glaucoma medication is also used to diagnosis horners syndrome (as an alternative to cocaine)?
What combo drugs are there for glaucoma?
- Simbrinza (brimonidine / brinzolamide)
- Combigan (brimonidine / timolol)
- Cosopt (dorzolamide / timolol)
What docosanoids are there?
Rescula (unoprostone isopropyl)
How much IOP is decreased with docosanoids?
What cholinergic agonists are there?
What glaucoma drug is used to diagnosis adies tonic pupil?
What are major side effects of cholinergic agonists?
- Bone marrow depression
- Kidney problems
What classes of drugs are contraindicated for cases of active uveitis?
- Cholinergic agonists
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